This area, considered suitable, reveals how the incoming cold air from the Polar Front projects to the north. These areas have regular drought periods, which could be mitigated by argan tree since it not only provides forage for goats but also produces argan oil for local consumption and for sale. The area situated between 500 and 1000 mm/year presents a subhumid climate, and the climate is humid when it exceeds 1000 mm. The average maximum winter temperature ranges from 17.5°C to 22°C . Scarce and scattered spiny shrubs are the main woody vegetation. Within the summer months, drinking water the Argan tree, especially if you understand that will the soil it will be planted in is regarding to run dry. Trouvez les Argan Tree images et les photos d’actualités parfaites sur Getty Images. A suitable area with constraints under dry-subhumid regime is present in the center of the provinces of Catamarca and Salta. Climate and Water Institute, INTA, Las Cabañas y Los Reseros, s/n, Castelar, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Laboratorio de Cultivo Experimental de Plantas y Microalgas, Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Instituto de Micología y Botánica (INMIBO), Universidad de Buenos Aires-CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Ambientales (CINEA), Facultad de Ciencias Humanas (FCH), Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (UNICEN), Campus Universitario, Paraje Arroyo Seco, s/n, Tandil, Argentina, http://www.jle.com/fr/revues/agr/e-docs/biodiversite_et_biogeographie_de_larganeraie_marocaine_266250/article.phtml?tab=texte, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sites/treedbs/treedatabases.asp, http://phase1.nccr-trade.org/images/stories/publications/IP5/GI_Case-studies_2009.pdf, http://www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-checklist/2014/details/species/id/9714131, http://altmedrev.com/publications/16/3/275.pdf, http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home, http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=148671, http://ecologia-mediterranea.univ-avignon.fr/uploads/media/Ecologia_mediterranea_1982-8_1-2.pdf, http://www.secheresse.info/article.php3?id_article=228, http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20m?kind=Argania+spinosa, http://www.gbif.org/occurrence/search?taxon_key=5333832&HAS_COORDINATE=true&HAS_GEOSPATIAL_ISSUE=false&offset=20, http://www.inra.org.ma/Docs/actesarganier/arganier309318.pdf, T. J. Lybbert, C. B. Barrett, and H. Narjisse, “Market-based conservation and local benefits: The case of argan oil in Morocco,”, F. Msanda, A. El Aboudi, and J. P. Peltier, “Biodiversité et biogéographie de l'arganeraie marocaine,”. B. Ruiz, “Argania spinosa L (Skeel) Sapotaceae. The essential fatty acids fight against drying and the loss of elasticity which encourage the appearance of wrinkles. Skeels.) To the extent that the species is unable to withstand cold, the annual mean minimum temperature, the winter mean maximum temperature, and the minimum temperature of the coldest month were analyzed. The tree has several mechanisms that restrain water loss: it reaches the deepest layers of soil during dry season, it can close its stomata during the day, and it has water reservoirs in its trunk and branches . Considering the increase in arid conditions worldwide, together with the prediction for fewer rainfalls, argan trees could be used for greenery purpose and to reduce climate change effect. It is a region traditionally used for agriculture and livestock raising. The agroclimatic zoning map was obtained by superimposing the maps related to moisture and thermal regimes. The first index used to analyze the thermal factor was the annual mean temperature, measured over a period of 30 years. Figure 5 presents the areas where the annual mean minimum temperature is above 10°C. Climatic interpolations were made using the “Interpolate to Raster” tool, within the “3D Analyst” extension of the GIS of the same program, following the Ordinary Kriging interpolation method. It is a major source of income for the local population where the argan trees grow. There is a marginal area in the north due to the high winter temperatures. Plant argan seedlings outdoors in free-draining soil and a sunny location. Argan trees in nature receive up to 39 inches of rain per year. In 1999, Unesco added the argan tree to the World Heritage list. The fruit has a green, fleshy exterior that ripens to a bright yellow. Argan tree plays a vital role in maintaining the ecological balance and the economic situation of the population. The argan tree used to grow throughout North Africa, but today it only grows in southwestern Morocco. Soak argan seeds in water for four days before planting. The argan (Argania spinosa L.) belongs to the Sapotaceae family and it is the only species of the genus Argania. According to , the winter mean maximum temperature should be higher than 17.5°C. This composition is particularly adept for nutritional, cosmetic, and medicinal uses. The argan tree is a slow-growing spiny tree and is either shrubby or up to 10 m high when isolated and growing in a favorable environment . These trees, in their native areas, take up to 39 inches of rain every year. Copyright © 2018 Silvia L. Falasca et al. Argan tree is a promising dryland crop for farmers in semiarid and arid climates of Argentina. Starting in Essaouira and extending to Goulmime, and from the High Atlas to the Atlantic Ocean, it covers more than 828,000 ha . The country borders to the north with Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay; to the south with Chile and the Atlantic Ocean; to the east with Brazil, Uruguay, and the Atlantic Ocean; and to the west with Chile (Figure 1). This can lead to more soil erosion and desertification. Near Essouira, Morocco - E028EB from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. One of these factors is the great latitudinal development: Argentina expands from 21°46′ (province of Jujuy) in the north to 55°03 in Cape San Pío (province of Tierra del Fuego), in the south. Summer is particularly harsh because temperatures are inordinately high and rainfall is scant (385 mm) and almost totally absent. By creating an account you agree to the Hunker, Purdue University Extension: New Crops as a Possible Solution for the Troubled Israeli Export Market, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Argania Spinosa. In a way, they are similar to the mangrove trees that are preventing floods in the area they grow in. With their incredibly deep roots (down to 35 meters!) Afterwards, these were processed by the Geographic Information System (GIS) tool of the Arc-GIS 9.3 program. It is a little-known tree indigenous to intramontane areas, with very low average rainfall, in southwestern Morocco. Keywords: soil erosion; argan; South Morocco; soil degradation; tree; intertree 1. Argan oil is obtained from the seeds of the argan tree traditionally pressed by hand. It later diverts to the north because of the altitudinal effect imposed by the Andes Mountains. Clear Skin. This isotherm indicates the southern limit for warm climates that can still be appropriate for tropical crops. Table 2 shows the agroclimatic indices that define each class of agroclimatic suitability. sous bioclimat aride à forte influence océanique (plaine du Souss, Maroc),”, Z. Charrouf and D. Guillaume, “Argan Oil,”, Y. le Polain de Waroux and E. F. Lambin, “Monitoring degradation in arid and semi-arid forests and woodlands: The case of the argan woodlands (Morocco),”. Although Argentine territory extends towards the Tropic of Capricorn (23°27′S), it lacks tropical climates. The international price of argan oil has stimulated the idea of cultivating A. spinosa in regions far from its original geographic center . I have only a few seeds left. The highest boundary for argan tree is close to the 3.8°C isotherm, which corresponds to the lower limit for snow . Keep them in dark and change the water every day. Argan wood cannot be destructed by insects, and it has been used for centuries in carpentry, charcoal, construction, and utensils at local level. Successful introduction of this species in Argentina depends on the degree of climate similarity in the natural area compared to new areas with agroclimatic suitability. After the oil is extracted, the residue from the kernels constitutes a thick chocolate-colored paste called “amlou,” with a flavor similar to that of peanut butter. Argentina’s climatic diversity is remarkable due to both its vast territory and distinct geographic factors that influence the climatic characteristics of the different regions. According to , the tree dies with frosts of −2°C, although according to  it can tolerate −5°C. Step 3 Water your argan tree during the summer if its soil is in danger of drying out. (TRT World and Agencies) Put water unto the soil mixture, sufficient to make the soil moist. Argan Tree Icon Argan Tree. In some regions, it is already damaged, and its future is endangered by prolonged drought periods and desertification. The north and northeast present optimum conditions with an average temperature of 7°C, while the suitable area (where minimum temperatures in July range from 3.8 to 7°C) covers the center of the country and reaches the center of the Buenos Aires province. 2018, Article ID 9262659, 10 pages, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9262659, 1Climate and Water Institute, INTA, Las Cabañas y Los Reseros, s/n, Castelar, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2Laboratorio de Cultivo Experimental de Plantas y Microalgas, Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 3Instituto de Micología y Botánica (INMIBO), Universidad de Buenos Aires-CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 4Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Ambientales (CINEA), Facultad de Ciencias Humanas (FCH), Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (UNICEN), Campus Universitario, Paraje Arroyo Seco, s/n, Tandil, Argentina. Figure 2 shows the moisture regions. One of these areas is Admine Forest (hereafter Coastal Browsing, 30°26′54.13′′N and 9°32′49.90′′W, located in the suburbs of Agadir city, 5 km inland, 107 m of altitude), which different authors [22–24] consider as the ecological optimum for the species and the center of its distribution area. However, research on these plants is usually scarce because they are commonly wild nondomesticated species. The climate of a geographic location can be depicted by long-term averages or “Normals,” which are defined as 30-year averages of a climate element. eubiona.com Traditionnellement, l'huile d'argan s'obtient par la pression manuelle des amandes du fruit de l'arganier. Plant the seedlings in a mixture containing three parts soil to one part peat moss and one part humus. Slightly larger than an olive, the argan fruit is usually harvested in July and August once it falls to the ground. Age Defying. they are stopping/slowing desertification by preserving soil. The argan tree is disseminated from Safi (north) to the Drâa River (south), and isolated populations extend as far as Tindouf, well inside the Western Sahara. There are no optimal zones for the argan tree in Argentina. To the west of the very suitable area, there is a suitable area with constraints under semiarid regime that comprises part of the provinces of San Juan, La Rioja, and San Luis. Take care not to damage their delicate taproot when planting. The GBIF  cites only 34 occurrences with georeferenced data. The suitable areas are those where the average minimum temperature is above −5°C. The tree is an important source of forage for sheep, goats, and cattle, but horses reject it. Natural vegetation is scarce, except for the dominant A. spinosa, and the climate is temperate due to marine influence. Argan trees grow in poor soil in their native habitat, according to the University of Arizona's Campus Arboretum website, and are not fussy about soil quality. Some of these new crops ameliorate the effects of increased atmospheric CO2 (greenhouse effect), which turns fertile lands into deserts by increasing temperature and producing drought . Hunker may earn compensation through affiliate links in this story. A very suitable area was described, which covers a large portion of the province of La Rioja and a small part of Catamarca. CannaCell® Sensitive 1000 Roses® Quenching. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. These trees do not really even mind if … The argan is a species that can be cultivated in drylands in regions where annual rainfalls are in the 200–300 mm range, with a minimum of 100 mm and a maximum of 400 mm . … There are no optimal zones for the argan tree in Argentina. In the coastal areas where argan trees grow, there are temperate oceanic influences with moderate temperatures (annual average in Agadir is 18.5°C; minimum temperature of coldest month: 7.4°C) and low annual and daily thermal amplitude . An agroclimatic zoning model was developed. To determine agroclimatic suitability, the average climatic data of all the meteorological stations (1981–2010) were analyzed. For instance, they sometimes put at risk the sustainability of the ecosystem where implantation is purported, or they ignore the agroclimatic requirements of the species. These isolated populations are considered relicts of a wider distribution in the past . The argan tree is a slow growing tree exclusively endemic in the dry lowlands of Southwest Morocco. For this reason, two extreme climatic areas were chosen to describe the “argan bioclimate.”. The crown has a circumference of about 70 m (230 ft) and the branches lean towards the ground. As a result, many growers have ceased investing and olive farms have been abandoned. Notwithstanding, this is pioneering work because the agroclimatic zoning for the argan tree in Argentina has never been done before. Best growth is observed with temperatures in the 20–30°C range, with a minimum of 10°C and a maximum of 35°C, although it can tolerate maximum temperatures of 50°C. This could affect the argan oil business in Morocco and defeat the efforts initiated to save the argan forests. An agroclimatic zoning model was developed. The wood is hard, heavy, and durable, and it results in good charcoal and firewood. Currently, the tree can be found in the south of Morocco, west of Algeria, north of Western Sahara, and north of Mauritania . Plant the seeds 2 inches deep in a damp soil mixture made up of two parts loam, one part peat moss and one part humus. The color is darker and the odor stronger than argan cosmetic oil because of the previous toasting of the kernels. Consequently, argan can be used as a repopulation species in semiarid and arid zones. If temperatures fall below 18°C the climate is deemed too cold for the argan tree, and the area is not suitable . It adapts well to hostile environments, and it can even be irrigated with salt-rich water . According to , it appears in subspontaneous form in the Sahara, between Djebel Ouarkziz and the Hamada of Tindouf (Algeria), in humid microhabitats. Age Defying. In the areas with agroclimatic suitability (suitable and very suitable), this index is between 3.5 and 7°C. Germination takes up to a month. To the west of the 500 mm isohyet, the moisture gradient provided by rainfall from the South Atlantic anticyclone decreases and the climate turns dry-subhumid, semiarid, and, finally, arid. Would you like to grow an Aragan tree in your yard? It will take … In Spain, there are specimens in Alicante, Murcia, Gran Canaria (Canary Islands), and Barcelona (38,06°N/1,17°W, 38,42°N/0,42°W, 27,10°N/15,10°W, 38,41°N/0,42°W, 38,33°N/0,54°W, 38,51°N/0,53°W, 38,41°N/0,42°W, 41,10°N/2,10°E, and 41,36N°/2,16°E). In fact, it’s a specialized plant that’s only native to one area. Goats digest the fleshy part of the fruit, but discharge the nut because of its hard shell. Argan oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. The tree is native to southern Morocco, where it grows in open forests up to an altitude of more than 5,000 feet. Macadamia nut trees can begin bearing in 6 to 7 years, so it is important … From the Souss plain to the Anti-Atlas Mountains, annual precipitation is in the 250 to 150 mm range. It has small and oblong leaves that occur in clusters, small flowers that are yellow green in colour, and fruits that are hard and green. Make a healthy soil combination by combining one part humus, one part peat moss, and 2 parts loam. argan trees inﬂuence the soil underneath signiﬁcantly, while the soil in intertree areas is less protected and more degraded. Botanically, Argan is a relic species from the Tertiary Age, the only member of the tropical Sapotaceae family occurring north of the Sahara and the single species of the genus Argania. The area studied was the Argentine Republic. In 1999, UNESCO added the argan tree to the World Heritage List. To identify regions with appropriate bioclimatic conditions for cultivating A. spinosa, both winter and summer requirements must be considered, since resistance to frosts and drought can be the key to success. This zone, considered suitable, is influenced by the north wind year-round, which is responsible for the high temperatures over the year. Climatological characteristics of its region of origin were considered to evaluate the requirements and biometeorological conditions. Materials and fuels . Currently, the olive industry has been curtailed due to rising production costs (approximately 40% annually) and low foreign currency (dollar) values. Down Icon Down. Efforts are being made to introduce and evaluate the potential of argan tree (Argania spinosa L.) a native of Morocco, for greenery applications under Kuwait’s environmental conditions. If this coppicing is done with sufficient knowledge of species and local conditions, the tree will respond by growing new shoots from its roots. Occasionally, new crops with attractive properties and exploitation potential capture the attention of both public and private sectors. These were obtained by interpolating the data collected in the 125 meteorological stations across the country (National Meteorological Service). The rest of the citations correspond to Morocco (30,53°N/7,89°W, 30,79°N/8,38°W, 29,70°N/9,92°W, 30,82°N/8,40°W, 30,68°N/8,17°W, 29,42°N/9,44°W, 30,37°N/9,70°W, 30,62°N/8,09°W, 29,75°N/9,28°W, etc.). Argan tree (Argania spinosa) seeds are the source of argan oil, which is used as a cooking oil and in the cosmetics industry. Silvia L. Falasca, Sandra Pitta-Alvarez, Ana Ulberich, "The Potential Growing Areas for Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels (Sapotaceae) in Argentinean Drylands", International Journal of Agronomy, vol. A suitable area with constraints under irrigation is in the provinces of San Juan, La Rioja, and Catamarca, and small ones can be found in Mendoza and San Luis. Figure 3 presents the annual mean temperature >18°C. Aspects of growth, such as development and death chances by excess or deficiency, were analyzed. Argan is a saline-sensitive plant [14, 19] and adult trees do not adapt to the higher salinity associated with dry areas. As can be observed in Figure 9, there is no optimal agroclimatic area for argan cultivation because, in the optimal zone, the minimum temperature of the coldest month is never below 7°C . The suitable areas cover part of the provinces of Catamarca, La Rioja, Córdoba, and San Luis and small areas in Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, and Salta. ITIS, “Catalogue of Life: 2014 Annual Checklist,” 26 November 2015, JP. Peltier, G. Carlier, and A. El Aboudi, “Evolution journalière de l’état hydrique des feuilles d’arganier (Argania spinosa L. The women who are doing this work, call for a better salary and fair living and working conditions." Geographical location, mean annual rainfall, and temperature records available from meteorological and agrometeorological stations within the study area were also considered. The agroclimatic suitability map presented is indicative because climate data spanning 30 years was used rather than data for a specific year. Table 1 shows some climatic characteristics of area of origin of the argan tree. Argan trees grow in poor soil in their native habitat, according to the University of Arizona's Campus Arboretum website, and are not fussy about soil quality. The climatological characteristics of the original area were analyzed, and the resulting bioclimatic indicators were extrapolated to the Argentine territory. A threat to the argan forests. Eight classes of agroclimatic suitability under dry-subhumid, semiarid, and arid climatic conditions were delineated. According to , the argan tree prospers in desert or arid (Bw), steppe or semiarid (Bs) climates, between 20 and 32° latitude. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Thought to be a living fossil in its natural distribution area in southern Morocco, western Algeria, northern Western Sahara and northern Mauritania where it still forms sizeable forests on arid lands, the Argan Tree dates back 80 million years in northern Africa and once covered vast areas. Argan oil is rich in vitamin E and it has been reported to lower cholesterol levels, stimulate blood circulation, facilitate digestion, and strengthen the body’s natural defenses . The argan tree is a very resistant tree of the arid regions, whose roots grow deep in search of water and thus help retain the soil, preventing its erosion and limiting the advance of the desert. The successful … The argan tree (argania spinosa) is found exclusively in Morocco, particularly the south-western region. Grow argan from seed planted in 3-inch plastic pots. The ratio of total unsaturated to total saturated fatty acids is around 4 : 5. The nuts are later collected by farmers to produce oil. In the future, farmers could combine horticultural species cropping, some olive trees, vegetables and livestock (mainly goats) in association with the argan tree, and beekeeping. It is therefore reasonable to assume further degradation of the soil when intertree areas extend further due to lack of rejuvenation of argan trees. This index is calculated by averaging the 12 normal monthly temperatures over the 30-year period. $14.99 Age Defying Avo Cocoa Skin … Under arid conditions there is another area classified as suitable with constraints which covers parts of the provinces of San Mendoza, San Juan, and La Rioja. The oil is also used for illumination and soap. The successful introduction of this species in Argentina depends essentially on the degree of similarity of climate in the natural area to that of the new areas with agroclimatic suitability. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. The argan tree does not exist in Argentina and, consequently, there are no commercial plantations that can be used to compare the agroclimatic zones delineated in this paper. These researchers maintain that argan tree is one of the few surviving relict-breed species of the Tertiary Period, which spanned from 65 million to 1.8 million years ago. C. Orwa, A. Mutua, R. Kindt, R. Jamnadass, and S. Anthony, “Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0,” 28 December 2015, Z. Charrouf and D. Guillaume, “Argan oil: occurrence, composition and impact on human health,”. Argan oil was used in Berber folk medicine for centuries to treat skin conditions, rheumatism, and heart disease. The limit between the subhumid and semiarid zones is represented by the 500 mm isohyet. It contains the haemolytic saponin sapoarganine, which is slightly toxic but does not harm ruminants. Then, put the soil blend to the plastic pot and put the seeds 2 inches deep to the soil. The resulting boom of this particular species can lead to large investments and campaigns promoting the need for its domestication and industrial scale commercialization. The nut-shells are also burned for cooking. This plant doesn’t grow on every corner of your neighborhood. Polyunsaturated fatty acids constitute approximately 80% of argan oil, and 30% of it is linoleic acid. The climate is more extreme than in Agadir, with a distinct continental character. The suitable and very suitable zones delimited for argan in Argentina are characterized by low and variable rainfall (100 to 400 mm) and mild winter temperatures. If argan tree is grown under rainfed conditions, the nonsuitable areas are those with annual precipitations below 100 mm. In the 100 to 200 mm and 300 to 400 mm interval, the area is suitable and, from 200 to 300 mm, optimal. For example, it mentions a preserved specimen in Arizona, USA, at 34.5°N/111°W; in Spain at 37.5°N/9°W, 38.21°N/10.25°W, and 40.5°N 3°W; in United Kingdom at 52.5°N/3°W; in Kenya at 1.5°N/39°E; and in Morocco at 31.5°N/9°W and 31.5°N/3°W. Down Icon Down. According to , the oil of this species was first reported in the thirteenth century by the botanist, scientist, pharmacist, and physician Ibn al-Baitar. The minimum temperature of the coldest month (in Argentina, July) is, by definition, the minimum monthly temperature occurrence over a 30-year period (normal) and it should be above 3.8°C . This can be a race against the clock – goats often climb the trees, eating the harvest first. image caption The argan tree is native to Morocco We are in the Moroccan countryside, some 25km (15.5 miles) inland from the port city of Essaouira, halfway down the country's Atlantic coast. The tree flourishes in areas where annual mean temperatures fluctuate between 18 and 20°C. Edible argan oil has several sterols that are uncommon in other edible vegetable oils, such as scotenol (48%), which has antitumoral and anticancer properties, and spinasterol (42%), a compound that reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption. To achieve this, both the thermal and the moisture regime, which are fundamental climatic characteristics that affect the development of this crop, must be considered. Argan trees grow to 8–10 m (26–33 ft) high and live up to approximately 200 years. Brightening. Eight classes of suitability were delineated: very suitable, suitable, suitable area with constraints (under dry-subhumid, semiarid, and arid regime) and under irrigation, marginal, and nonsuitable areas. In less than a century, more than a third of the argan forest has disappeared. Argan trees that are deprived of water will get into a dormancy condition and won’t bear any fruits. Another index is the annual mean maximum temperature, which should surpass 23.0°C to ensure an appropriate thermal regime during the growing period . Climatic characteristics of area of origin of the argan tree (elaborated by the authors based on [. Argan is a thermoxerophile and its edaphic requirements are scarce . This is responsible for the low minimum temperatures in all the national territory. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. 2. In this article, you’ll learn a great deal about the argan tree. Subespontánea en la Península Ibérica,”. A GI would mean that only the argan oil prepared from seeds collected in Morocco, with the appropriate rules of production, could be sold as such under that name . Very suitable, suitable, and marginal areas for this species were delimitated. In the mountains and inside the continent, the thermal amplitude reaches higher values and the minimum temperatures of the coldest month fluctuate from 3°C to 7°C. In the summer months, water the Argan tree, particularly if you know that the soil it is planted in is about to dry up. In Morocco's southern mountains gold grows on the region's argan trees. Figure 7 shows the minimum temperature of the coldest month (July). Edible argan oil is obtained from lightly toasted kernels, and it is becoming increasingly popular in gastronomy due to its exotic aroma and fruit-like flavor, reminiscent of a mixture of nuts, hazelnuts, and sesame seeds. The annual mean minimum temperature, an index that represents the minimum daily temperatures registered over 30 years, reveals the intensity of minimum temperatures and, according to , it should surpass 10.0°C. Nerd, “New Crops as a Possible Solution to the Troubled Israeli Export Market,” in, Z. Bouzoubaâ and A. El Mousadik, “Temperature drought and salt effect on Arganiaspinosa (L.) Skeels seed germination,”, A. Zahidi and F. Bani-Aameur, “Germination des amandes d'arganier (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels): effet du génotype, de la date de semis et de l'année de récolte,”, M. Zunzunegui, F. Ain-Lhout, J. Jáuregui et al., “Fruit production under different environmental and management conditions of argan, Argania spinosa (L.),”, Z. Bouzoubaâ and A. El Mousadik, “Effet de la température, du déficit hydrique et de la salinité sur la germination de l'Arganier, Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels,”, S. M. El Yousfi and F. Benchekroun, “La dégradation forestière dans le sud marocain, exemple de l'arganeraie d'Admine (Souss) entre,”.
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