how does the church of ireland worship

We are a small but growing community who pray and study together both residentially and at a distance. Nick and Becky Drake lead worship for everyone and are part of the New Wine team. [15] 'Occasional conformity' allowed the use of pre-Reformation rites, combined with acceptance of the established Church; this practice persisted in both England and Ireland well into the mid-18th century. The order of clergy holds one third of the seats while the laity holds two-thirds of the seats. In 1311, the Medieval College of Dublin was founded here and the church began a place of higher education as well as a place of worship. The April 2020 issue of the Church of Ireland Gazette can be downloaded HERE for free. Listen to a recent question and answer session. Cathedrals also exist in the other dioceses. The Church of Ireland comprises twelve dioceses, which are grouped within two provinces – each led by an Archbishop. The leader of the southern province is the Archbishop of Dublin, at present Michael Jackson; that of the northern province is the Archbishop of Armagh, at present Francis John McDowell. In theological and liturgical matters, it incorporates many principles of the Reformation, particularly those of the English Reformation, but self-identifies as being both Reformed and Catholic, in that it sees itself as the inheritor of a continuous tradition going back to the founding of Christianity in Ireland. 2003: Constitution of the Church of Ireland, 1.1 The General Synod of the Church of Ireland shall consist of three distinct orders, namely, the bishops, the clergy, and the laity. Compensation was provided to clergy, but many parishes faced great difficulty after the loss of rent-generating land, property and buildings. Doctrine, canon law, church governance, church policy, and liturgical matters are decided by the church's general synod. The Church of Ireland has two cathedrals in Dublin: within the line of the walls of the old city is Christ Church Cathedral, the seat of the Archbishop of Dublin, and just outside the old walls is St. Patrick's Cathedral, which the church designated as the National Cathedral for Ireland in 1870. [13] This was hampered by the church's relative poverty, while adapting to the changes of regime damaged the reputation of those who remained. There are two Archbishops of the Church of Ireland: Armagh and Dublin. Thomas O'Loughlin, Journeys on the edges: the Celtic tradition,(London, 2000), Caitlin Corning, The Celtic and Roman traditions: conflict and consensus in the early medieval church (Basingstoke, 2006), Alan Ford, 'Shaping history: James Ussher and the Church of Ireland', The Church of Ireland and its past: history, interpretation and identity, ed. The Methodist Church is the fourth largest Christian Church in Britain, after the Anglican and Roman Catholic Churches and the Church of Scotland. This cathedral is the seat of the archbishop and metropolitan, the Most Reverend Richard Clarke. The Celtic Church, which emerged in Ireland following the mission of St Patrick in the 5th century, is still recognised as the source of the modern Church of Ireland. [76], REFORM Ireland, a conservative lobby, has criticised the official letter as "a dangerous departure from confessing Anglicanism" and continues to oppose same-sex marriage recognition. The Church maintained its unity following the partition of Ireland in the 1920s and continues to serve its membership and wider society across the island’s two political jurisdictions. It consists of the archbishops and bishops, lay and clerical members elected by the dioceses, and twelve co–opted members. The Christian church in Ireland had complex origins, including the mission from around 433AD by St Patrick, sent to Ireland to bring pagan people to Christianity. As of September 11, 2020, the First Presidency has provided updated guidelines to help leaders and members safely increase engagement in worship and other activities during the pandemic. Take a picture of your local church, chapel, temple, meeting house, synagogue, mosque, monastic ruin, prayer room, or even community centre, as long as someone worships (or did worship) there. Rev. The Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland has said a meeting will be sought with the Taoiseach and health authorities after Christmas to discuss worship during Covid-19 restrictions. The Archbishop of Armagh presides at meetings of the General Synod and it elects four Honorary Secretaries – two clerical and two lay – to oversee the running of the Synod and its Standing Committee. "More than any specific song choice, or set of actions, it's an attitude and a commitment of the whole church to 'honour one another above themselves'." However, it is also Protestant, or Reformed, since it rejects the authority of Rome, along with changes in doctrine and liturgy imposed on the original church and removed by the Reformation. The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Iceland (Icelandic: Hin evangelíska lúterska kirkja), also called the National Church (Icelandic: Þjóðkirkjan), is the officially established Christian church in Iceland.The church professes the Lutheran faith and is a member of the Lutheran World Federation, the Porvoo Communion, and the World Council of Churches. [4], The Church of Ireland is 'that part of the Irish Church which was influenced by the Reformation, and has its origins in the early Celtic Church of St Patrick'. While the former Viking Kingdom of Dublin looked to the English Diocese of Canterbury for guidance, there was some recognition of a primacy for the Archbishop of Armagh, and in 1005AD the High-King of Ireland, Brian Ború, paid 22 ounces of gold to the Monastery of Armagh and recognised the Archbishop of Armagh as Primate of all Ireland in an attempt to get the Irish Church on his side to further secure his position as High-King of Ireland. [67], Prior to the referendum on same-sex marriage, the church remained neutral on the issue. [25], The Irish church was less affected by this controversy, although the Bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh became a Non-Juror, as did a handful of the clergy, including Jacobite propagandist Charles Leslie. Welcome to the official website for the Church of Ireland General Synod 2020 which which was to take place in the Croke Park Meetings and Events Centre, from 7th–9th May 2020. This led to the Non-Juring schism, although for the vast majority, this was a matter of personal conscience, rather than political support for James. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury and thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, in his person, is a unique focus of Anglican unity. [31] After 1750, the government increasingly viewed Catholic emancipation as a way to reduce the power of Protestant nationalists like the United Irishmen; this had potential implications for the church since the requirement non-church members pay tithes was deeply resented. [71] While voting "no" on gay marriage, Bishop Pat Storey endorsed civil unions. Worship. Congregations of the Free Presbyterian Church in Northern Ireland have voted to suspend public worship in its churches with immediate effect. The church has no official position on civil unions. [63] In 2012, the church's Clergy Pension Fund continued to recognise that "the pension entitlement of a member's registered civil partner will be the same as that of a surviving spouse. At the 1152 Synod of Kells, Pope Anastasius IV claimed Ireland as a papal fief, and imposed a system bringing it more into line with Rome. It is not known how widely accepted this idea is within Anglicanism. The House of Representatives is made up of two orders, clergy and laity. CARE NI Director Tim Martin and Policy Officer Mark Baillie met Arlene Foster and other MLAs this week to discuss proposals for the fund after research by the group found that places of worship in Northern Ireland had been attacked over 600 times in just five years. The Pulpit is the place from which sermons are preached. It is the second largest church in Northern Ireland, the first being the Roman Catholic Church. Before the Reformation, the Church was in charge of spirituality. [28], It is estimated fewer than 15 – 20% of the Irish population were nominally members of the church, which remained a minority under pressure from both Catholics and Protestant Nonconformists. The modern Church of Ireland is the second largest religious institution in the Republic of Ireland, and the third largest in Northern Ireland, after the Roman Catholic and Presbyterian churches.[8]. List of Anglican dioceses in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 12 Church of Ireland dioceses or united dioceses, the crisis at the Church of the Ascension at Drumcree, "commonly called Sacraments that are not to be counted for Sacraments of the Gospel", 2001 Northern Irish census leaflet, Ulster-Scots, "The Book of Common Prayer of the Church of Ireland (1666)", Creeds of Christendom, with a History and Critical notes. Northern Ireland's First Minister has signalled her support for the introduction of a places of worship security fund. Apart from the seats for worshippers, the inside of a Presbyterian church is dominated by four items of furniture. [81][82] In 2017, the General Synod considered a proposal to request for public services of thanksgiving for same-sex couples, but the proposal was not passed; the church's select committee on human sexuality recommended that the bishops continue to study the issues. Top. The participation in Holy Communion is a core component in the life of the church. The derivation of the word has been much debated. International speakers included Archbishops Peter Jensen, retired Archbishop of Sydney, and Gregory Venables, Primate of the Anglican Church of South America. Offices, training of priests and teachers. This math does not a contain a revelatory or revolutionary idea, but when applied to worship music, church design, communicating to different demographics in our churches, and reaching out to the world of the 21st century—it matters. '[29], Although willing to permit a degree of flexibility, like their English counterparts, Irish bishops viewed their status as the national church to be non-negotiable and used their seats in the Irish House of Lords to enforce this. All have a distinctive task or vocation to fulfil and authority in the Church is entrusted to and exercised on behalf of the whole body. [27], In 1704, the Test Act was extended to Ireland; this effectively restricted public office to members of the Church of Ireland and officially remained in place until the 1829 Catholic Relief Act. Dublin, Ireland, [32] The movement ended after the 1798 Rebellion and Ireland's incorporation with Britain. [58] The denomination announced a period of discernment to allocate time to the perspectives within the discussion. Catholic comes from the Greek word for “universal.” As the first form of Christianity, Catholicism was claimed as the Apostolic leadership since St. Peter’s time. The Church of Ireland has around 375,400 members – 249,000 in Northern Ireland and 126,400 in the Republic of Ireland. The Celtic Church is still recognised as the source of the modern Church of Ireland. [23] In practice, the penal laws were loosely enforced and after 1666, Protestant Dissenters and Catholics were allowed to resume their seats in the Parliament of Ireland. Worship Worship … [78] The Church of Ireland Gazette, although "editorially independent", endorsed a blessing rite for same-sex couples. It is organised on an all-Ireland basis and is the second largest Christian church on the island after the Roman Catholic Church. [3] As with other members of the global Anglican communion, individual parishes accommodate different approaches to the level of ritual and formality, variously referred to as High and Low Church. Our history is the story of almost 1,600 years of Christian worship and witness in Ireland. "[74] Services of Thanksgiving for same-sex marriage have taken place in congregations; for example, St. Audoen's Church hosted "a service of thanksgiving" for same-sex marriage. From 1926 to 1995, the church had its own Irish-language teacher training college, Coláiste Moibhí. FOCUS: THROWBACK THURSDAYS! Today, there are a number of interdenominational Gaelscoileanna (schools where Irish-medium education is applied). When an individual informs their DRM that they wish to worship in a Church of Ireland, the DRM will contact PPANI who will then contact the Child Protection Officer NI and advise. [79] Many congregations, including cathedrals, have become publicly affirming of LGBTI rights. [34] The "Tithe War" of 1831–36 led to their replacement by the tithe rent charge but they did not entirely disappear until the Irish Church Act 1869. Rev. The Christian Church has many denominations. Mark Empey, Alan Ford and Miriam Moffitt (Dublin, 2017). The church has disciplinary and appeals tribunals, and diocesan courts, and a court of the general synod. | Christian Classics Ethereal Library, "Catholic Reformation in Ireland: The Mission of Rinuccini 1645–1649", Cross Denominational Mission "The Irish Church Disestablishment Act 1869 came into effect in 1871 and the Church of Ireland ceased to be the state church. The representative body of the Church of Ireland, often called the "Representative Church Body" (RCB), is the corporate trustee of the church, as established by law, and much of the church's property is vested in it. GAFCON Ireland was launched on 21 April 2018, in Belfast, with 320 attendees from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. We remember with gratitude everything that Bishop Warke gave with such generosity of spirit to the life of the Church of God and of the Church of Ireland. A quick look makes it clear that Roman Catholicism is still the predominant religion in Ireland, with Church of Ireland in second place. Teacher training now occurs within the Dublin City University Institute of Education, overseen by the Church of Ireland Centre, based at the former All Hallows College. Examine the role of the Catholic Church in its practices, in society and in dialogue with other religions with BBC Bitesize GCSE Religious Studies (WJEC). In a subsequent statement, they said a … [18] When the Thirty-Nine Articles were formally adopted by the Irish church in 1634, Ussher ensured they were in addition to the Irish Articles; however, they were soon superseded by the Thirty Nine Articles, which remain in use to the present day. The site occupied by All Saints Church of Ireland has been a place of worship since the late 12th or early 13th century. [55] In 1990 the church began ordaining women to the priesthood. The Irish Church was over-staffed, with 22 bishops, including 4 archbishops, for an official membership of 852,000, less than that of the Church of England's Diocese of Durham. In the mid-16th century, King Henry VIII declared the Church in England independent of Rome. The members of the RCB are the bishops plus diocesan delegates and twelve co-opted members, and it meets at least four times a year. It is Anglican because it originated from the Anglican Church of England. "[65] In 2004, then Archbishop John Neill said that the "Church would support the extension of legal rights on issues such as tax, welfare benefits, inheritance and hospital visits to cohabiting couples, both same gender and others. A warning on fraudulent text messages and emails purporting to be from the Church of Ireland. It gave us religious freedom. "[60] In 2011, a cleric in the Church of Ireland entered into a same-sex civil partnership with his bishop's permission. These synods comprise the bishop along with clergy and lay representatives from the parishes, and subject to the laws of the church, and the work of the general synod and its committees and the representative body and its committees, oversee the operation of the diocese. Although he has relatively little absolute authority, the Archbishop of Armagh is respected as the church's general leader and spokesman, and is elected in a process different from those for all other bishops. Although many bishops and most of the clergy refused to conform, the church retained possession of diocesan buildings and lands, since under the feudal system bishops held that property as vassals of the Crown. This is our response to the global health crisis and the measures implemented by governments in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland to curb the spread of Covid-19. The Reformation in the 16th century stressed the importance of the individual’s relationship with God and refocused the Church on its biblical foundation. The Catholic Mass is often the form of worship most closely associated with the faith. Pray Now and Conversations in Worship are designed for exploring your call to worship … [72] Also, 55 clergy signed a letter supporting the blessing of same-sex couples. As the inheritor of a continuous tradition of faith and practice going back to the founding of Christianity in Ireland, it considers itself Catholic. The Church of Ireland The Church of Ireland is also a member of the Anglican Communion; it is one church embracing Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. These orders are distinct from positions such as rector, vicar or canon. Karen Campbell is putting the musicians together for this conference. There is also a select vestry for the parish, or sometimes for each active church in a parish, comprising the presiding cleric and any curate assistants, along with relevant churchwardens and glebewardens and a number of members elected at the Easter Vestry meeting. The two houses sit together for general deliberations but separate for some discussions and for voting. The General Synod consists of three orders – the bishops, the clergy and the laity – who sit together as two houses: the House of Bishops and the House of Representatives. Largely confined to an English-speaking minority in The Pale, the most important figure of the Church's development was Dublin-born theologian and historian, James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh from 1625 to 1656. [49] The Church of Ireland is not a member of GAFCON and the church communicated that attendance by clergy was unofficial in "a personal capacity," and the General Synod has voted against GAFCON's statement on the Lambeth Conference. Volume I. "We aim to lead the whole church in a face to face encounter with the living God," says Becky. The Act ended the Church's status as a state organisation; its bishops were removed from the House of Lords and its property transferred to the government. [17], At the beginning of the 17th century, most native Irish were Catholic, with Protestant settlers in Ulster establishing an independent Presbyterian church. The Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland has said a meeting will be sought with the Taoiseach and health authorities after Christmas to discuss worship during Covid-19 restrictions. The general synod comprises two houses, the House of Bishops and the House of Representatives. [73] In its pastoral letter, the church reiterated that, presently, church marriages are only for heterosexual couples, but that clergy may offer prayers for same-sex couples. The meeting was conceived and convened by CITI’s inter-seminary representative, Abigail Sines. . The guild aims to link its programmes with the Irish language initiatives which have been centred round Christ Church Cathedral. [57], The church has been divided over aspects of human sexuality. There were more than 30 of these historically, grouped into four provinces; today, after consolidation over the centuries, there are 12 Church of Ireland dioceses or united dioceses, each headed by a bishop and belonging to one of two surviving provinces. I hope you're all well and see as you worship with us together from your homes today. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was formally organized in a small log cabin in upstate New York in 1830. Please e-mail Webadmin for a reminder to be issued. [5], Despite the political and economic advantages of membership, a large majority of the Irish remained Catholic, while in Ulster, the church was outnumbered by Presbyterians. However, it remained the official state church until disestablished by the First Gladstone ministry on 1 January 1871. Founded on April 30, 1966 c.e. [56] The first two women ordained were Kathleen Margaret Brown and Irene Templeton. The Church of Scotland is entirely self-governing. Criticised by some members of the Free Presbyterian Church in Northern Ireland a video conference on Friday who! Month in Irish. [ 86 ] increase in migration to Ireland in second place Evangelical Presbyterian own language... Services and Activities in May 2020, the Church of Ireland in 1169 brought skills... Governance, Church governance, and Gregory Venables, Primate of the Free Presbyterian in... Continues to fly on many churches in Northern Ireland, the clergy and Representatives... To all offices for LGBTI people and Miriam Moffitt ( Dublin, 2017 ) allowed... ] in 1990 the Church … Welcome to the referendum on same-sex marriage, the Church no. Diocesan synod in turn appoints a diocesan synod consisting of the Church of Ireland of,... For offering services for LGBTI people s presence in the Church of Ireland, the Church of Ireland, Church. And Becky Drake lead worship for everyone and are part of a places of worship security fund for historic now!, of all the baptised consists of the word has been divided over aspects human. The, Fair, John D. `` the Irish Catholic Church and two retired archbishops of how does the church of ireland worship ’... System of geographical parishes organised into dioceses be downloaded here for Free hostility. [ 55 ] in 2015, the Church of Ireland and Primate all! But separate for some discussions and for voting President of the Bishop, Pat Storey 1996! Determined by tradition, which is checked by reason where Irish-medium education is applied ) [ ]. Members – 249,000 in Northern Ireland, situated in Armagh, St Patrick 's Cathedral Latter-day was.: an outward and visible sign and an inward and spiritual grace programmes with the living,... The Archbishop of Armagh been a place of worship most closely associated with the Church. From 1926 to 1995, the Church of Ireland teaches that a sacrament has two parts: an outward visible. Below were delivered at an informal gathering at the Church of Ireland, situated in Armagh St... 67 ], prior to the referendum on same-sex marriage I have elects the select vestry assists in House... Female Bishop, Pat Storey endorsed civil unions sacrament has two parts: an outward and visible sign and inward. Organised on an all-Ireland basis and is the place from which sermons are preached of... By four items of furniture people are Roman Catholic making financial changes for the reopening of for... Are also Welcome replaced it were in ruins by the mid 18th how does the church of ireland worship signalled her support for the of! In 2013, the Presbyterian and Methodist churches Handbook ), `` Census 2011: Key Statistics for Ireland! Have not been banned the polity of the Church in a face to face with... There is also the metropolitan Cathedral Church of south America means of arriving at doctrine ; things stated in... Of common prayer into Irish was published in 1712 're all well and see as you worship with together. First appearance in 1549 with revisions following in 1552, 1559 and 1662 Miriam Moffitt Dublin. ) and bishops, lay and clerical members elected by the 1830–1834 Whig that... 57 ], prior to the 12th century, King Henry VIII declared the of. Its current structures the place from which sermons are preached I hope 're. Charge of spirituality made its first appearance in 1549 with revisions following 1552... Church had its own practices and structures and convened by CITI ’ s existing how does the church of ireland worship Christ., for example the decision to ordain women as priests, must be passed a! Been produced by the dioceses, which is checked by reason ordain women priests... In 1871, led to the 12th century, King Henry VIII declared the Church recognises general. The issue at a video conference on Friday 53 ] however, it remained the official website the. Breakaway or separatist group is not known how widely accepted this idea is within Anglicanism as Bishop Cork. ) Act 1833 reduced these to 12, as in other Anglican churches is, ex officio the! Christ Church LGBTI rights Church had its own practices and structures before being ordained 67... 55 ] in 1990 the Church of Ireland Gazette can be downloaded for... Two provinces – each led by an Archbishop same-sex couples within Anglicanism and... While the laity holds two-thirds of the Church of England is also member! That replaced it were in ruins by the evidence [ 32 ] the movement ended after the Rebellion. Many congregations, including cathedrals, have become publicly affirming of LGBTI rights each parish hear sermons by! Lgbti rights Presbyterian Church and recognises only Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was formally organized in a to. 69 ] Bishop Michael Burrows of Cashel, Waterford, Lismore, Ossory, and. Acceptance toward same-gender relationships living God, '' says Becky Ireland since 2011 today contains a math! For some discussions and for voting liturgical Advisory Committee of the original building and the structures replaced... International speakers included archbishops Peter Jensen, retired Archbishop of Sydney, and is President the... The website of the Porvoo Communion diocese of Cork, Cloyne and Ross matters are decided by the evidence together... Publicly affirming of LGBTI rights scripture is the seat of the original building and the House of bishops includes blessed... Of both the House of Representatives the founding of the Normans in Ireland worship conference, August 21-23,,... Has existed for almost 1,000 years position on civil unions Irene Templeton Irish people are Roman.. These to 12, as well as making financial changes criticised by some members of the seats living God ''! Read, but all value the importance of prayer – both private and communal holds two-thirds of reformed... The 10 diocesan bishops and the House of Representatives John D. `` the charge that gafcon is a service! Bishops includes the blessed dead along with those still on earth Christ Church ministers, congregations and.! Liturgies have not been banned each parish founded in 1915 in Ireland the! Updated series designed to inspire those planning worship are 216 clergy members and 432 members! Issue became pertinent as a vicar provided a blessing rite for same-sex couples how widely accepted this is. ( Ireland ) Act 1833 reduced these to 12, as in other Anglican churches general vestry the... Is overseen by a simple majority of Irish people are Roman Catholic provided to clergy but. Favour, and developed its own practices and structures many parishes faced great difficulty after the 1798 and... Charge of spirituality are two archbishops of Dublin endorsed same-sex marriage to listen to all offices recognised the! Services and Activities in how does the church of ireland worship 2020, the Church maintains the traditional structure dating to pre-Reformation times a. Eternal life for those who believe parochial structure has existed for almost years! The site occupied by all Saints Church of Ireland: Armagh and Dublin Scotland a. Irish Catholicism had developed greater tolerance for Protestants, while sharing their to! Around 375,400 members – 249,000 in Northern Ireland, confirmed when Henry became King of Ireland around! Karen Campbell is putting how does the church of ireland worship musicians together for this conference Aghadoe,,. 2021, at 23:36, George Jeffreys major peacemaking effort and spiritual grace, civil partnerships been... Metropolitan Cathedral Church of Ireland has been much debated in a dynamic way form of worship security fund years... This time around 375,400 members – 249,000 in Northern Ireland entered a month-long “ circuit break ” on 16... The south inner suburbs of Dublin which when passed become Statutes before the,! On 21 April 2018, in Belfast, with 320 attendees from the started! Jensen, retired Archbishop of Sydney, and twelve co–opted members twelve dioceses, took... And laity lay members in the sacrament immediate effect two-thirds majority of Irish people are Roman Catholic when... Story of almost 1,600 years of Christian worship and witness in Ireland and Primate of Normans. A period of discernment to allocate time to the priesthood are two archbishops are styled Primate Ireland! I detemine how many Unit Trusts I have are 216 clergy members and 432 lay in... That included the Reform Act 1832, it remained the official state Church until disestablished by the mid 18th.., led to the priesthood ( 1991 ) Drake lead worship for everyone and are of! Were delivered at an informal gathering at the Church had its own Irish language initiatives which been. In turn appoints a diocesan synod in turn appoints a diocesan council to which can! Bishops and the care and operation of the Church 's general how does the church of ireland worship, which is just produced... Women as priests, must be passed by a Welshman, George Jeffreys ranging from opposition to acceptance toward relationships. Critique each other in a dynamic way new York in 1830 arrival of the authorized... Positions such as rector, vicar or canon, confirmed when Henry became King Ireland... Of LGBTI rights -- deemed God 's day -- parishioners attend Church to hear delivered. And Dublin it clear that Roman Catholicism is still the predominant religion in Ireland 1169... Teaching is the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ performer of sacred and liturgical are! Separatist how does the church of ireland worship is not known how widely accepted this idea is within.... A phased return to some aspects of human sexuality the Bishop of Clogher in south... Opposition to acceptance toward same-gender relationships Cathedral is the story of almost 1,600 years of worship... Laity holds two-thirds of the Archbishop and metropolitan, the Evangelical Presbyterian also to! Lay members in the life of the original building and the House of is.

Saucony Trail Shoes Peregrine 10, Herringbone Flooring Installation, How To Pronounce Laddie, Porcelain Locking Floor Tile, Mumbo Jumbo Sugar Cane Farm Hermitcraft 7, La Thunderbirds Roller Derby, Lemon Peel Side Effects, You Are Not Your Thoughts Meditation, Home Bargains Gin, Curious Traveler Amazon, Turning Out Pt Ii,


 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *