protect from slugs and snails. Lettuce is most often used for salads, although it is also seen in other kinds of food, such as soups, sandwiches and wraps; it can also be grilled. Singapore, Malaysia, Japan, China, the Philippines and possibly certain parts of India would grow lettuce. , Other bacteria found on lettuce include Aeromonas species, which have not been linked to any outbreaks; Campylobacter species, which cause campylobacteriosis; and Yersinia intermedia and Yersinia kristensenii (species of Yersinia), which have been found mainly in lettuce. Lettuce is generally a rich source of vitamins K and A, though the nutritional quality varies, depending on the variety.  Viruses, including hepatitis A, calicivirus and a Norwalk-like strain, have been found in lettuce. Instead of growing the lettuce in soil, they are grown in nutrient solutions inside green houses. Spain and then the US are the two largest exporters of lettuce in the world. The problem with the popular iceberg (head) lettuce is that when the first head appears, the remainder is not far behind. The vegetable has also been linked to outbreaks of parasitic infestations, including Giardia lamblia..  In spite of its high water content, traditionally grown lettuce has a low water footprint, with 237 liters of water required for each kilogram of lettuce produced. Amy Schleunes Mar 9, 2020.  Once plants move past the edible stage, they develop flower stalks up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) high with small yellow blossoms. Some American settlers claimed that smallpox could be prevented through the ingestion of lettuce, and an Iranian belief suggested consumption of the seeds when afflicted with typhoid. California accounted for 71 percent of U.S. head lettuce production in 2013, followed by Arizona producing nearly 29 percent. Stem lettuce is more common in Egypt and China while butterhead was preferred in Northern Europe. The fruits have 5–7 ribs on each side and are tipped by two rows of small white hairs. In addition to its main use as a leafy green, it has also gathered religious and medicinal signific… Lactuca virosa is biennial, similar to prickly lettuce Lactuca serriola but taller – it can grow to 200 cm (80 inches or almost 7 feet). You can pick loose-leaf lettuce varieties from six weeks, at 10 weeks for hearting types. And today you rarely see a home garden without some kind of lettuce growing in it.  The consumption of lettuce in China developed differently from in Western countries, due to health risks and cultural aversion to eating raw leaves. Romaine is more popular in the Mediterranean countries. Lettuce, annual leaf vegetable of the aster family. Growers in the USA, Canada, Japan and Europe are opting for a semi-closed greenhouse in combination with the nutrient film … The cultivated lettuce Lactuca sativa is a popular salad vegetable and is grown on all continents throughout the world including Australia.. The cultivated lettuce Lactuca sativa is a popular salad vegetable and is grown on all continents throughout the world including Australia.. The 16th through 18th centuries saw the development of many varieties in Europe, and by the mid-18th century cultivars were described that can still be found in gardens. It's by far the world's most popular salad plant and has been cultivated for more than 2,000 years. Most lettuce varieties are eaten fresh and are commonly served as the base of green salads. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an annual of the Asteraceae family and native to the Mediterranean.It is thought to have originated in Europe and Asia and been cultivated for at least 2000 years. In addition to its main use as a leafy green, it has also gathered religious and medicinal significance over centuries of human consumption. Optimum growth temperature for lettuce is 16 to 18 °C and the plant can tolerate temperatures as low as 7 °C. Documentation from the late 19th century shows between 65 and 140 distinct varieties of lettuce, depending on the amount of variation allowed between types – a distinct difference from the 1,100 named lettuce varieties on the market at the time. The Romans likewise claimed that it increased sexual potency. Summary. Ancient records note that lettuce was served at the royal table of Persian kings as early as 550 B.C. This large price difference is justified; as hydroponic lettuce has a better taste, is grown without pesticides, and requires significantly less water to grow. LETTUCE has been successfully grown in space — bringing the colonisation of Mars a step closer say scientists. Circa 50 AD, Roman agriculturalist Columella described several lettuce varieties – some of which may have been ancestors of today's lettuces. , Soil nutrient deficiencies can cause a variety of plant problems that range from malformed plants to a lack of head growth. List of the best variety of lettuce greens for growing in a pot.  The ovaries form compressed, obovate (teardrop-shaped) dry fruits that do not open at maturity, measuring 3 to 4 mm long. But the crown jewel is lettuce. In 2013, 24.9 million tons of lettuce were produced in the world. Lettuce simply can't come into contact with the fecal matter that causes E. coli 0157 if it's grown in filtered water, inside a greenhouse and with limited human contact, according to Rindi Bristol. Your Fruits and Vegetables Come from: An Interactive Finder.  Lettuce is closely related to several Lactuca species from southwest Asia; the closest relationship is to L. serriola, an aggressive weed common in temperate and subtropical zones in much of the world. In that country, "salads" were created from cooked vegetables and served hot or cold. China alone produced about 13.5 million tons.  Plants in hot areas that are provided partial shade during the hottest part of the day will bolt more slowly. or on mountain tops, without getting eaten. Today, lettuce leaves are mainly consumed while one type is cultivated for seeds to prepare and oil and another type is cultivated for its stem. The plant was first cultivated by ancient Egyptians from where it spread to Greece and Rome and was soon cultivated in most parts of Europe. By Oishimaya Sen Nag on April 25 2017 in Economics. It's by far the world's most popular salad plant and has been cultivated for more than 2,000 years. Several other medicinal and religious lores are also associated with lettuce consumption. It is most often grown as a leaf vegetable, but sometimes for its stem and seeds. Because lettuce is used in salads, we tend to eat more of it in summer. In 2017, world production of lettuce (report combined with chicory) was 27 million tonnes, with China alone producing 15.2 million tonnes or 56% of the world total (see table). Heat generally prompts lettuce to bolt, with most varieties growing poorly above 24 °C (75 °F); cool temperatures prompt better performance, with 16 to 18 °C (61 to 64 °F) being preferred and as low as 7 °C (45 °F) being tolerated. Iceberg/Crisphead – The most popular type in the United States, it is very heat-sensitive and was originally adapted for growth in the northern United States. Lettuce was also used in a larger variety of dishes than in Western countries, contributing to a range of dishes including bean curd and meat dishes, soups and stir-frys plain or with other vegetables. In 2011, lettuce was grown on 206,000 acres in California, which represented 73% of the total U.S. acreage . This is done through the aid of modern technology, namely aeroponics and hydroponics. Lettuce is grown in home gardens worldwide. It’s much cheaper to grow your own lettuce than buy bags of lettuce from the shops, and the variety of lettuces you can grow versus shop-bought lettuce is greater, too.  At room temperature, lettuce seeds remain viable for only a few months. One variety, the celtuce (asparagus lettuce) (t: 萵苣; s: 莴苣; woju), is grown for its stems, which are eaten either raw or cooked. Certain varieties contain more than others, and some selective breeding and genetic modification studies have focused on using this trait to identify and produce commercial varieties with increased pest resistance. Some varieties, especially those found in the United States and Western Europe, have long, narrow taproots and a small set of secondary roots. And lettuce is a great plant to start with if you want to ease into year-round growing. In Alberta, some large commercial greenhouses use a raft system for producing lettuce. In 1586, Joachim Camerarius provided descriptions of the three basic modern lettuces – head lettuce, loose-leaf lettuce, and romaine (or cos) lettuce. Amy Schleunes Mar 9, 2020. All mine seem to be a slug magnet, so they must survive naturally somewhere in the world- like on desert islands surrounded by salt flats! tatarica. Lettuce spread to the Greeks and Romans; the latter gave it the name lactuca, from which the English lettuce is derived. According to estimates given by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in 2006, China produced around 11,005,000 metric tonnes of lettuce on 500,250 hectares of land.  Today, the majority of lettuce is grown for its leaves, although one type is grown for its stem and one for its seeds, which are made into an oil.  During the 1950s, lettuce production was revolutionized with the development of vacuum cooling, which allowed field cooling and packing of lettuce, replacing the previously used method of ice-cooling in packing houses outside the fields. , Lettuce was first cultivated in ancient Egypt for the production of oil from its seeds. The study noted that in some trials, the space-grown plants tended to be richer in elements like potassium, sodium, phosphorus, sulphur, and zinc, as well as in some molecules with proven antiviral, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activity. Trying to grow lettuce again this year and want to mimic where it grows best - and wild. Lettuce can be grown from seed or from steams depending on the variety. This lettuce is so local, they grow it right in the supermarket QFC supermarkets around Seattle now feature standing indoor farms that grow the produce in the store. This Primefact includes information on: Types of Lettuce Produced The emergence of California as a dominant lettuce production area in the 1920s had a large impact on the types of lettuce consumed. The lettuce plant is a hardy annual that grows best in nitrogen-rich, loose soils that have a pH ranging between 6.0 and 6.8. There are several types or cultivars of lettuce. They need moist soil to grow correctly. Oilseed – This type is grown for its seeds, which are pressed to extract an oil mainly used for cooking. Several types of lettuce are grown but the three most common types are romaine, leaf, and head lettuce.  Most lettuce is used in salads, either alone or with other greens, vegetables, meats and cheeses.  Lettuce contains several defensive compounds, including sesquiterpene lactones, and other natural phenolics such as flavonol and glycosides, which help to protect it against pests. So, light but consistent watering is key. Lettuce spaced farther apart receives more sunlight, which improves color and nutrient quantities in the leaves. They said the space-grown lettuce was similar in composition to the Earth-based controls.  After harvest, lettuce lasts the longest when kept at 0 °C (32 °F) and 96 percent humidity. However, in China, a majority of the lettuce produced is utilized for domestic consumption. Lettuce is the only member of the genus Lactuca to be grown commercially. Lettuce leaves are widely used in salads, sandwiches, wraps, and similar food items. -Kelly W. ANSWER: By planting a few seeds every two weeks or so, gardeners in many parts of the world can grow lettuce year round.Most varieties of salad greens really thrive in the cool and mild times of year, when temperatures are 60 degrees Fahrenheit or lower. Lettuce can be grown in a garden almost anywhere in the US, but by far the majority of commercial lettuce is grown in the Salinas Valley on California's central coast.  One variety, the celtuce (asparagus lettuce) (t: 萵苣; s: 莴苣; woju), is grown for its stems, which are eaten either raw or cooked. Data … Books published in the mid-18th and early 19th centuries describe several varieties found in gardens today. I’m worried that it gets too hot here in the late summer months to grow lettuce. The cultivated variety appears to have been about 75 cm (30 in) tall and resembled a large version of the modern romaine lettuce. In the last decade, the market for this variety has also grown explosively in Italy. China is the world leader in lettuce production, producing half of the world's lettuce.Stem lettuce is grown in the country and the stems are prepared as a cooked vegetable. Imports from Spain and Northern Europe dominate the Italian market. Iceberg lettuce was mainly produced in the western U.S. Although lettuce is produced in many states, California and Arizona dominate U.S. production.  Many insects are attracted to lettuce, including cutworms, which cut seedlings off at the soil line; wireworms and nematodes, which cause yellow, stunted plants; tarnished plant bugs and aphids, which cause yellow, distorted leaves; leafhoppers, which cause stunted growth and pale leaves; thrips, which turn leaves gray-green or silver; leafminers, which create tunnels within the leaves; flea beetles, which cut small holes in leaves and caterpillars, slugs and snails, which cut large holes in leaves. , Lettuce appears in many medieval writings, especially as a medicinal herb. China is the world leader in lettuce production, producing half of the world's lettuce.Stem lettuce is grown in the country and the stems are prepared as a cooked vegetable. Why it is an advantage growing lettuce in a pot. The high water content of lettuce (94.9 percent) creates problems when attempting to preserve the plant – it cannot be successfully frozen, canned or dried and must be eaten fresh.  Hydroponic growing methods can reduce this water consumption by nearly two orders of magnitude. QUESTION: What lettuce grows well in summer?  A 2007 study determined that the vacuum cooling method, especially prevalent in the California lettuce industry, increased the uptake and survival rates of E. coli O157:H7. "Lettuce" is synonymous with "salad" for people all over the world. Lettuce is most often used for salads, although it is also seen in other kinds of food, such as soups, sandwiches and wraps; it can also be grilled. , Food-borne pathogens that can survive on lettuce include Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis, which multiplies in storage. In the US, no one type predominated until the early 20th century, when crisphead lettuces began gaining popularity. The harvested lettuce is best stored at 0 °C and a humidity of 96%. Incidence, Growth, and Survival of Pathogens in Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce", "Bashiqa Journal: A Sect Shuns Lettuce and Gives the Devil His Due", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lettuce&oldid=997415699, Articles with dead external links from October 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Diff… Stem lettuce, widely consumed in China, is eaten either raw or cooked, the latter primarily in soups and stir-frys. Lettuce varieties will cross with each other, making spacing of 1.5 to 6 m (60 to 240 in) between varieties necessary to prevent contamination when saving seeds.  Stem lettuce was first developed in China, and remains primarily cultivated in that country. Large areas of lettuce are also grown in southeastern Australia, Japan, China, Israel, northern Mexico, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Peru. Temperatures above 24 °C are not optimum for the growth of this crop, as cooler temperatures give better yields. Lettuce is easy to grow. The plant is difficult to store as it has a high water content and thus it is best eaten fresh. Each fruit contains one seed, which can be white, yellow, gray or brown depending on the variety of lettuce.  Mammals, including rabbits and groundhogs, also eat the plants. Romaine lettuce is often used for Caesar salads.  L. sativa also has many identified taxonomic groups, subspecies and varieties, which delineate the various cultivar groups of domesticated lettuce. integrata and L. scariola var. Lettuce was originally farmed by the ancient Egyptians, who transformed it from a plant whose seeds were used to create oil into an important food crop raised for its succulent leaves and oil-rich seeds. The early 20th century saw the development of new packing, storage and shipping technologies that improved the lifespan and transportability of lettuce and resulted in a significant increase in availability. It has become naturalized in Europe because of its use as a vegetable.  Weeds can also be an issue, as cultivated lettuce is generally not competitive with them, especially when directly seeded into the ground. For example, ancient Egyptians thought lettuce to be a symbol of sexual prowess and a promoter of love and childbearing in women. The International Space Station (ISS) has been experimenting with growing its own lettuce and good news for astronauts, a study found the space-grown variety to be just as nutritious as Earth-grown. In the same region, hydroponic tomatoes often sell for below $3 per pound. Although romaine lettuce is a heat resistant variety, lettuce, in general, are cold-weather plants and will not do well in hot weather.  Lettuces meant for the cutting of individual leaves are generally planted straight into the garden in thick rows. Lettuce leaves can also be found in soups, sandwiches and wraps, while the stems are eaten both raw and cooked. Cover with a very thin layer of compost or vermiculite. The advisory issued by the Ministry pertains to the crop grown in Salinas, California."  Herbicides are often used to control weeds in commercial production. Description. L. sativa crosses easily within the species and with some other species within the genus Lactuca. The lettuce is grown in styrofoam boards that float in a pool of nutrient solution. "Lettuce" is synonymous with "salad" for people all over the world. Lettuce leaves are widely used in salads, soups, wraps, sandwiches. The original stem type traveled eastward, ... produce nearly all the commercially grown lettuce in the world. Generally grown as a hardy annual, lettuce is easily cultivated, although it requires relatively low temperatures to prevent it from flowering quickly. Where (in the World!) Thin seedlings out when they’re big enough to handle and keep the compost moist. Ancient Egyptians would relate lettuce to sexual prowess. It is also stouter, the stem and leaves are more purple flushed, [disputed – discuss] the leaves are less divided, but more spreading. However, this has led to the development of herbicide-resistant weeds and prompted environmental and health concerns.. Currently, the crisphead variety is more dominant in northern and western Europe. Lettuces come in a wide variety of shapes, colours and textures. Growing lettuce in a clean room where there is very little dust and most germs have been eliminated means that lettuce is produced that can be eaten without washing. How to Keep Growing Lettuce in Fall (and Winter) Even in cold winter areas, you can grow lettuce through the colder months if you give your plants some protection. Countries worldwide are steadily supplying more and more produce to Americans eager to “eat fresh” year-round Sow seed on moist, well-prepared soil or compost in spring. Lettuce grows best in full sun in loose, nitrogen-rich soils with a pH of between 6.0 and 6.8. The FDA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Tuesday said romaine lettuce grown in Florida is safe to eat. In 2013, 24.9 million tons of lettuce were produced in the world. There are a number of features that make lettuce suitable for genetic studies. Despite grown under low gravity and intense radiation, the space-grown lettuce is as nutritious as those grown on earth, said Christina … Frankly, lettuce can now be grown almost anywhere in the World. Spacing of about 6 to 18 inches between romaine lettuce plants to ensure they get enough nutrients and space to grow. Eight years later, almost four times as much iceberg as butter lettuce was shipped . Aster yellows are a disease-causing bacteria carried by leafhoppers, which causes deformed leaves. The European settlers introduced the crops to other parts of the world. The use of lettuce in cuisines has been prevalent since the ancient times. In addition, since the temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide, lighting, and other conditions can be perfectly controlled by ICT, a stable yield of high-quality, low-potassium lettuce can be harvested throughout the year. Lettuce growing systems Around the world, different styles of growing systems are used for greenhouse lettuce (Figure 1). By the end of the century, other types began to regain popularity and eventually made up over 30 percent of production. China alone produced about 13.5 million tons. The ancient Romans consumed lettuce leaves cooked and served with a dressing of vinegar and oil as far back as 50 AD. Originally, the countries of North America and Western Europe ranked the highest in lettuce production in the world. Plants generally have a height and spread of 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 in).  The leaves are colorful, mainly in the green and red color spectrums, with some variegated varieties. Lactuca virosa is biennial, similar to prickly lettuce Lactuca serriola but taller – it can grow to 200 cm (80 inches or almost 7 feet). List Notes: Production is in metric tonnes for the year 2007.List also includes chicory.  With the exception of the iceberg variety, lettuce is also a good source (10–19% DV) of folate and iron (table). Conventionally grown lettuce, similarly packaged, is often sold below $4 per pound. Hildegard of Bingen mentioned it in her writings on medicinal herbs between 1098 and 1179, and many early herbals also describe its uses. It is most often grown as a leaf vegetable, but sometimes for its stem and seeds. Miner’s lettuce is a perennial vegetable native to much of the western United States and Canada. Outbreaks Associated with Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce. , Lettuce's native range spreads from the Mediterranean to Siberia, although it has been transported to almost all areas of the world. Spacing of about 6 to 18 inches between romaine lettuce plants to ensure they get enough nutrients and space to grow. Space lettuce grown on the International Space Station has been proven safe to consume, which could change the way astronauts eat during long-term spaceflight in the future. In the same region, hydroponic tomatoes often sell for below $3 per pound. QUESTION: What lettuce grows well in summer? It is also stouter, the stem and leaves are more purple flushed, [disputed – discuss] the leaves are less divided, but more spreading. IKEA, the world's biggest furniture retailer, is preparing to serve lettuce grown in high-tech containers outside its stores as part of efforts to improve its environmental profile. Before World War I most lettuce grown in the U.S. was  Salmonella bacteria, including the uncommon Salmonella braenderup type, have also caused outbreaks traced to contaminated lettuce. Lettuce is grown on all continents, but the greatest consumers and producers are the USA (91 000 hectares, of which 60 000 ha are in California) and Europe (total EEC area 80 000 ha). Your Fruits and Vegetables Come from: An Interactive Finder. Lettuce has been traced back to a native weed that was cultivated in Egypt for the oil gained from the seeds. Originally, the countries of North America and Western Europe ranked the highest in lettuce production in the world. Although romaine lettuce is a heat resistant variety, lettuce, in general, are cold-weather plants and will not do well in hot weather. By 50 AD, many types were described, and lettuce appeared often in medieval writings, including several herbals. It has few leaves, bolts quickly and produces seeds around 50 percent larger than other types of lettuce. Because lettuce is used in salads, we tend to eat more of it in summer. Tags: Crops Sources: FAOSTAT data, 2007 (last accessed by Top 5 of Anything: March 2010). Starting in the 1990s, such programs began to include more distantly related species such as L. , Species of annual plant of the daisy family, most often grown as a leaf vegetable, "Lettuce (with chicory) production in 2017; Countries/Regions/Production Quantity from pick lists", "The Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project", "New Directions in Salad Crops: New Forms, New Tools, and Old Philosophy", "Developing Multi-Species Insect Resistance in Romaine Lettuce", "As Bagged Salad Kits Boom, Americans Eat More Greens", "Chapter IV.  Although China is the top world producer of lettuce, the majority of the crop is consumed domestically. It is a component of many salad dishes although chefs around the world use it in soups, wraps, and sandwiches as well. , Lettuce also suffers from several viral diseases, including big vein, which causes yellow, distorted leaves, and mosaic virus, which is spread by aphids and causes stunted plant growth and deformed leaves.
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