ecological importance of biodiversity

Biodiversity is important to most aspects of our lives. It also extracts monetary benefits through tourism. Importance of Biodiversity. Biodiversity and Ecology Biodiversity is the divergency of species present in different eco-systems. But scientists have not been able to explain how greater energy input could translate into more species. In general, the fish taken from fisheries have shifted to smaller species and the larger species are overfished. Biogeography is the study of the distribution of the world’s species both in the past and in the present. Biodiversity is very important to the well-being of our planet and here’s why. The decline in soil productivity occurs because the interactions in the original ecosystem have been lost. It is estimated that one third of pharmaceutical research and development is spent on natural compounds and that about 35 percent of new drugs brought to market between 1981 and 2002 were from natural compounds. In 2008, the Svalbard Global seed Vault, located on Spitsbergen island, Norway, (Figure) began storing seeds from around the world as a backup system to the regional seed banks. These ecological effects of biodiversity in turn are affected by both climate change through enhanced greenhouse gases, aerosols and loss of land cover, and biological diversity, causing a rapid loss of biodiversity and extinctions of species and local populations. Our ecosystems provide us with food, medicine, clean air and water, recreation, and spiritual and aesthetical inspiration. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMICAL IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY Biodiversity is considered a cornerstone to the health of the environment. For example, many plants produce compounds meant to protect the plant from insects and other animals that eat them. One overriding importance is that biodiversity is responsible for the continuity of the planet because it supports majority of the vital environmental life cycles such as the oxygen cycle, the water cycle, and the nitrogen cycle just to mention a few. It is also expressed as the exposure of the endangered or extinctive statistics of the variety of number of species existing in various eco-systems.In the atmosphere, gases such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, ozone, and methane act like the glass roof of a greenhouse by trapping heat and warming the planet. One of the oldest observed patterns in ecology is that biodiversity typically increases as latitude declines. Environmental Biology by Matthew R. Fisher is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. The collapse of fisheries has dramatic and long-lasting effects on local human populations that work in the fishery. Biodiversity is important to the survival and welfare of human populations because it has impacts on our health and our ability to feed ourselves through agriculture and harvesting populations of wild animals. Approximately 15 to 20 RVEIs are surveyed each year by the Hampshire Biodiversity Information Centre (HBIC) as part of an annual survey programme to assess their value for biodiversity. We value biodiversity for many reasons, some utilitarian, some intrinsic. Contemporary societies that live close to the land often have a broad knowledge of the medicinal uses of plants growing in their area. Economic Benefits of Biodiversity. Until the emergence of humans, the earth supported more biodiversity than any other period in geological history. Endemic species are found in only one location. Trees and plants also store carbon in their tissue, making it even more necessary to protect them. The people in this region traditionally lived in relatively isolated settlements separated by mountains. It is estimated that honeybee pollination within the United States brings in $1.6 billion per year; other pollinators contribute up to $6.7 billion. Epub 2017 Dec 4. Ecological life support—biodiversity provides functioning ecosystems that supply oxygen, clean air and water, pollination of plants, pest control, wastewater treatment and many ecosystem services. Honeybee populations in North America have been suffering large losses caused by a syndrome known as colony collapse disorder, a new phenomenon with an unclear cause. Over 150 crops in the United States require pollination to produce. These same seed companies, however, have participated in the decline of the number of varieties available as they focus on selling fewer varieties in more areas of the world replacing traditional local varieties. Altogether, the food, commercial forestry and ecotourism industries could lose US$ 338 billion per year if the loss of biodiversity continues at its current pace. The stability of tropical ecosystems might promote speciation. These wild forms are often the source of new gene variants that can be bred with existing varieties to create varieties with new attributes. Biodiversity & Ecology publishes research papers as well as forum papers, reviews and reports on biodiversity, evolution, and ecology. Table 1. Forests and wetland ecosystems provide crucial buffers to extreme storms and flooding related Naming and counting species may seem an unimportant pursuit given the other needs of humanity, but it is not simply an accounting. In a landmark study published in 2017, a group of researchers led by Bronson Griscom, who researches natural climate solutions at Conservation International, Biodiversity loss refers to the reduction of  biodiversity due to displacement or extinction of species. Biodiversity is not evenly distributed on the planet. At least 40 percent of the world’s economy and 80 percent of the needs of the poor are derived from biological resources. Another experimental study found that introducing multiple enemies of pea aphids (an important alfalfa pest) increased the yield of alfalfa significantly. It normally appears in one volume per year with typically 200–300 pages. For example, potatoes were domesticated beginning around 7,000 years ago in the central Andes of Peru and Bolivia. It includes organisms from Earth’s vastly different ecosystems, including deserts, rainforests, coral reefs, grasslands, tundra, and polar ice caps. The loss of a particular individual species may seem unimportant to some, especially if it is not a charismatic species like the Bengal tiger or the bottlenose dolphin. Protecting biodiversity plays a crucial part in achieving these emissions reductions. This is particularly true for struggling communities in developing countries, who often turn to high-biodiversity ecosystems as their source of food, fuel, medicines There are various initiatives to catalog described species in accessible and more organized ways, and the internet is facilitating that effort. This is likely to have dramatic effects on human welfare through the collapse of ecosystems. More sophisticated measures of diversity take into account the relative abundances of species. less likely to deliver those services, especially given the needs of an ever-growing human population. The destruction of forest ecosystems is responsible for 11 percent of all global greenhouse gas emissions caused by humans, so conserving forests would stop the release of these gases into the atmosphere. Recreation—many recreational pursuits rely on our unique biodiversity, such as birdwatching, hiking, camping and fishing. Jan 30, 2012 . Meanwhile The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) initiative estimates that global sustainable business opportunities from investing in natural resources could be worth US$ 2 to 6 trillion by 2050. What accounts for the difference in diversity between Lake Victoria and Lake Huron? In addition to growing crops and raising food animals, humans obtain food resources from wild populations, primarily wild fish populations. Seed companies, which are the source of most crop varieties in developed countries, must continually breed new varieties to keep up with evolving pest organisms. 2018 Jan;2(1):57-64. doi: 10.1038/s41559-017-0402-5. formally used as national symbols in 142 countries. There is considerable research into the psychologically regenerative benefits of natural landscapes that suggest the hypothesis may hold some truth. Given that Earth is losing species at an accelerating pace, science knows little about what is being lost. Since the beginning of human agriculture more than 10,000 years ago, human groups have been breeding and selecting crop varieties. Some of these compounds also work as human medicines. Kangaroos graze in a field as smoke shrouds the Australian capital of Canberra, Australia, Wednesday, Jan. 1, 2020. The lake is under heavy pressure because of overfishing, cyclical drought, changing rainfall patterns and the diversion of water by upstream developments, These rainforests are the most diverse ecosystems on the planet and are being destroyed rapidly by deforestation. Finally, humans compete for their food with crop pests, most of which are insects. Many honeybee populations are managed by beekeepers who rent out their hives’ services to farmers. IMPORTANCE The increasing use of the term biodiversity is being driven by the fact that, in an ecological context, global biodiversity itself is being lost at an alarming rate . The loss of the crop led to famine, death, and mass emigration. Genetic diversity is the raw material for evolutionary adaptation in a species and is represented by the variety of genes present within a population. For example: imagine if maple trees disappeared. The world’s growing human population faces significant challenges in the increasing costs and other difficulties associated with producing food. Biologists recognize that human populations are embedded in ecosystems and are dependent on them, just as is every other species on the planet. Despite considerable effort, knowledge of the species that inhabit the planet is limited. Moreover, these pesticides may migrate from the fields where they are applied and do damage to other ecosystems like streams, lakes, and even the ocean. carriers like mosquitoes to extend their geographic ranges and infect new populations of humans. There are three main fields of study under the heading of biogeography: ecological biogeography, historical biogeography (called paleobiogeography), and conservation biogeography. A challenge in implementing biodiversity conservation is in reconciling criteria for identifying significant areas and representative networks for biodiversity protection. Endemic species with highly restricted distributions, like the Barton Springs salamander, are particularly vulnerable to extinction. For example, the richness of diversity allows medicines and foods to be naturally available. By Jim Shelton. Biodiversity, also called biological diversity, the variety of life found in a place on Earth or, often, the total variety of life on Earth. To coincide with the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation 2018 annual meeting in Sarawak, Malaysia, this Virtual Issue celebrates the breadth of recent research on tropical biodiversity published in Journal of Applied Ecology. Biologists estimate that species extinctions are currently 500–1000 times the normal, or background, rate seen previously in Earth’s history. Other toxins under investigation come from mammals, snakes, lizards, various amphibians, fish, snails, octopuses, and scorpions. January 16, 2020. The layout is very attractive with pages in A4-size (30 cm × 21 cm) and full-colour print. The term biodiversity (from the phrase “biological diversity”) refers to the variety of life on Earth at all its levels, from genes to ecosystems, and can encompass the evolutionary, ecological, and cultural processes that sustain life. For example, the blue jay is endemic to North America, while the Barton Springs salamander is endemic to the mouth of one spring in Austin, Texas. This table shows the estimated number of species by taxonomic group—including both described (named and studied) and predicted (yet to be named) species. Losing one might not be a disaster, but each loss adds to the likelihood of a serious problem. All major religions include elements of nature and 231 species are For about one billion people, aquatic resources provide the main source of animal protein. Protecting biodiversity plays a crucial part in achieving these emissions reductions. However, these two fields of research developed in parallel and independent from one another, with the consequence that little is known about the role of … The complexity of tropical ecosystems may promote speciation by increasing the habitat complexity, thus providing more ecological niches. That biodiversity creates the conditions under which crops are able to grow through what are known as ecosystem services—valuable conditions or processes that are carried out by an ecosystem. Ecosystems weakened by the loss of biodiversity are Ecosystems such as parks and other protected areas also provide recreation and a knowledge resource for visitors, and biodiversity is a frequent Finally, it has been argued that humans benefit psychologically from living in a biodiverse world. Examples of significant medicines derived from plant compounds include aspirin, codeine, digoxin, atropine, and vincristine (Figure 4). Much of this loss is occurring in tropical rainforests like the one pictured in Figure 1, which are very high in biodiversity but are being cleared for timber and agriculture. The Ecology, Biodiversity, and Conservation series presents balanced, comprehensive, up-to-date, and critical reviews of selected topics within the sciences of ecology and conservation biology, both botanical and zoological, and both 'pure' and 'applied'. Importance of Biodiversity . For centuries in Europe, older knowledge about the medical uses of plants was compiled in herbals—books that identified the plants and their uses. The diversity of species provides humans with a wide range of economic benefits: Wild plants and animals maintain a valuable pool of genetic variation.This is important because domestic species are genetically uniform. They occur within ecosystems, such as soil ecosystems, as a result of the diverse metabolic activities of the organisms living there, but they provide benefits to human food production, drinking water availability, and breathable air. Loss of these species would make growing crops requiring pollination impossible, increasing dependence on other crops. Langrand said. Biodiversity is the variety of species used in both the production and consumption of goods and services. Crops are not grown, for the most part, in built environments. 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