Lettuces have a wide range of shapes and textures, from the dense heads of the iceberg type to the notched, scalloped, frilly or ruffly leaves of leaf varieties. Despite grown under low gravity and intense radiation, the space-grown lettuce is as nutritious as those grown on earth, said Christina … Cover with a very thin layer of compost or vermiculite. The advisory issued by the Ministry pertains to the crop grown in Salinas, California." Conventionally grown lettuce, similarly packaged, is often sold below $4 per pound. Your Fruits and Vegetables Come from: An Interactive Finder. Lettuce parts have also been used in the preparation of traditional and herbal medicines in some places. Lettuce is easy to grow.  Weeds can also be an issue, as cultivated lettuce is generally not competitive with them, especially when directly seeded into the ground. In warm climates lettuce growing is usually restricted to the spring and fall, when temperatures are more moderate than in summer or winter. The ancient Romans consumed lettuce leaves cooked and served with a dressing of vinegar and oil as far back as 50 AD. According to estimates given by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in 2006, China produced around 11,005,000 metric tonnes of lettuce on 500,250 hectares of land. In the same region, hydroponic tomatoes often sell for below $3 per pound. How to Keep Growing Lettuce in Fall (and Winter) Even in cold winter areas, you can grow lettuce through the colder months if you give your plants some protection. Lettuce is rich in Folate, Manganese, Vitamins A, C, K, and dietary fiber. Stem lettuce is more common in Egypt and China while butterhead was preferred in Northern Europe. Although romaine lettuce is a heat resistant variety, lettuce, in general, are cold-weather plants and will not do well in hot weather. All mine seem to be a slug magnet, so they must survive naturally somewhere in the world- like on desert islands surrounded by salt flats! IKEA, the world's biggest furniture retailer, is preparing to serve lettuce grown in high-tech containers outside its stores as part of efforts to improve its environmental profile. The problem with the popular iceberg (head) lettuce is that when the first head appears, the remainder is not far behind. You can pick loose-leaf lettuce varieties from six weeks, at 10 weeks for hearting types. However, despite high levels of bacteria being found on ready-to-eat lettuce products, a 2008 study found no incidences of food-borne illness related to listeriosis, possibly due to the product's short shelf life, indigenous microflora competing with the Listeria bacteria or inhibition of bacteria to cause listeriosis. Lettuce flowers more quickly in hot temperatures, while freezing temperatures cause slower growth and sometimes damage to outer leaves. Lettuce is produce year round in the U.S. It can be plagued by numerous nutrient deficiencies, as well as insect and mammal pests, and fungal and bacterial diseases. Lettuce has been traced back to a native weed that was cultivated in Egypt for the oil gained from the seeds.  Stem lettuce was first developed in China, and remains primarily cultivated in that country.  Herbicides are often used to control weeds in commercial production. The study noted that in some trials, the space-grown plants tended to be richer in elements like potassium, sodium, phosphorus, sulphur, and zinc, as well as in some molecules with proven antiviral, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activity. The initial settlers in South America considered lettuce to be a cure for small pox. Description. However, in China, a majority of the lettuce produced is utilized for domestic consumption. -Kelly W. ANSWER: By planting a few seeds every two weeks or so, gardeners in many parts of the world can grow lettuce year round.Most varieties of salad greens really thrive in the cool and mild times of year, when temperatures are 60 degrees Fahrenheit or lower. Lettuce is grown in home gardens worldwide. Lettuce varieties are selected for specific planting periods and disease resistance. Celis regards the semi-closed greenhouse as the next step in the high-tech production of leafies. The high water content of lettuce (94.9 percent) creates problems when attempting to preserve the plant – it cannot be successfully frozen, canned or dried and must be eaten fresh.  Today, the majority of lettuce is grown for its leaves, although one type is grown for its stem and one for its seeds, which are made into an oil. So, light but consistent watering is key. It's by far the world's most popular salad plant and has been cultivated for more than 2,000 years. In Alberta, some large commercial greenhouses use a raft system for producing lettuce. This was done for several reasons, the most prominent being to boost sales by promoting a "new" variety or to prevent customers from knowing that the variety had been developed by a competing seed company. Growers in the USA, Canada, Japan and Europe are opting for a semi-closed greenhouse in combination with the nutrient film … Romaine is more popular in the Mediterranean countries. Several types of lettuce are grown but the three most common types are romaine, leaf, and head lettuce. QUESTION: What lettuce grows well in summer? It has few leaves, bolts quickly and produces seeds around 50 percent larger than other types of lettuce. World production of lettuce and chicory for 2017 was 27 million tonnes, 56% of which came from China.. In 2013, 24.9 million tons of lettuce were produced in the world. Pale to white lettuce, such as the centers in some iceberg lettuce, contain few nutrients.. Lettuce growing systems Around the world, different styles of growing systems are used for greenhouse lettuce (Figure 1). China is the world leader in lettuce production, producing half of the world's lettuce.Stem lettuce is grown in the country and the stems are prepared as a cooked vegetable. Growing lettuce in a clean room where there is very little dust and most germs have been eliminated means that lettuce is produced that can be eaten without washing. In the US, no one type predominated until the early 20th century, when crisphead lettuces began gaining popularity. All mine seem to be a slug magnet, so they must survive naturally somewhere in the world- like on desert islands surrounded by salt flats! And today you rarely see a home garden without some kind of lettuce growing in it. In the same region, hydroponic tomatoes often sell for below $3 per pound.  This propensity for crossing, however, has led to breeding programs using closely related species in Lactuca, such as L. serriola, L. saligna, and L. virosa, to broaden the available gene pool. , Lettuce is very easy to grow, and as such has been a significant source of sales for many seed companies. Whilst lettuce is mostly used in salads it can also be used in soups, sandwiches and sandwich like meals. However, when newly harvested lettuce seed is stored cryogenically, this life increases to a half-life of 500 years for vaporized nitrogen and 3,400 years for liquid nitrogen; this advantage is lost if seeds are not frozen promptly after harvesting.. Butterhead – Also known as Boston or Bibb lettuce.  After harvest, lettuce lasts the longest when kept at 0 °C (32 °F) and 96 percent humidity. In these areas it was the most commonly grown lettuce in the twenty-first century. Sow seed on moist, well-prepared soil or compost in spring. The early 20th century saw the development of new packing, storage and shipping technologies that improved the lifespan and transportability of lettuce and resulted in a significant increase in availability. Spain and then the US are the two largest exporters of lettuce in the world. But the crown jewel is lettuce. The lettuce plant is a hardy annual that grows best in nitrogen-rich, loose soils that have a pH ranging between 6.0 and 6.8. Because lettuce is used in salads, we tend to eat more of it in summer. China alone produced about 13.5 million tons. The cultivated variety appears to have been about 75 cm (30 in) tall and resembled a large version of the modern romaine lettuce. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), an annual plant, belongs to the family Asteraceae. This large price difference is justified; as hydroponic lettuce has a better taste, is grown without pesticides, and requires significantly less water to grow. In 2011, lettuce was grown on 206,000 acres in California, which represented 73% of the total U.S. acreage . For greenhouse producers, re-circulating aeroponic List of the best variety of lettuce greens for growing in a pot. In 2013, 24.9 million tons of lettuce were produced in the world.  With the exception of the iceberg variety, lettuce is also a good source (10–19% DV) of folate and iron (table). Iceberg lettuce was mainly produced in the western U.S.  In spite of its high water content, traditionally grown lettuce has a low water footprint, with 237 liters of water required for each kilogram of lettuce produced. Countries worldwide are steadily supplying more and more produce to Americans eager to “eat fresh” year-round  The consumption of lettuce in China developed differently from in Western countries, due to health risks and cultural aversion to eating raw leaves. , A hardy annual, some varieties of lettuce can be overwintered even in relatively cold climates under a layer of straw, and older, heirloom varieties are often grown in cold frames. Lettuce was originally farmed by the ancient Egyptians, who transformed it from a plant whose seeds were used to create oil into an important food crop raised for its succulent leaves and oil-rich seeds. This is done through the aid of modern technology, namely aeroponics and hydroponics. The study published in the journal Frontiers in Plant Science claims that the lettuce grown in space is free of microbes and is safe to eat. Trying to grow lettuce again this year and want to mimic where it grows best - and wild. By the late 20th century, the preferred types began to change, with crisphead, especially iceberg, lettuce becoming the dominant type in northern Europe and Great Britain and more popular in western Europe. Ancient records note that lettuce was served at the royal table of Persian kings as early as 550 B.C. They need moist soil to grow correctly. So, with the hot months approaching, now is a good time to discuss growing this vegetable..  Many insects are attracted to lettuce, including cutworms, which cut seedlings off at the soil line; wireworms and nematodes, which cause yellow, stunted plants; tarnished plant bugs and aphids, which cause yellow, distorted leaves; leafhoppers, which cause stunted growth and pale leaves; thrips, which turn leaves gray-green or silver; leafminers, which create tunnels within the leaves; flea beetles, which cut small holes in leaves and caterpillars, slugs and snails, which cut large holes in leaves. Summary.  Plants in hot areas that are provided partial shade during the hottest part of the day will bolt more slowly. So, with the hot months approaching, now is a good time to discuss growing this vegetable.. This lettuce is so local, they grow it right in the supermarket QFC supermarkets around Seattle now feature standing indoor farms that grow the produce in the store. Tags: Crops Sources: FAOSTAT data, 2007 (last accessed by Top 5 of Anything: March 2010). They said the space-grown lettuce was similar in composition to the Earth-based controls. Where did lettuce originate from? Spain is the world's largest exporter of lettuce, with the US ranking second. I’m worried that it gets too hot here in the late summer months to grow lettuce. or on mountain tops, without getting eaten.  A 2007 study determined that the vacuum cooling method, especially prevalent in the California lettuce industry, increased the uptake and survival rates of E. coli O157:H7. Summercrisp – Also called Batavian or French crisp, this lettuce is midway between the crisphead and leaf types. , Other bacteria found on lettuce include Aeromonas species, which have not been linked to any outbreaks; Campylobacter species, which cause campylobacteriosis; and Yersinia intermedia and Yersinia kristensenii (species of Yersinia), which have been found mainly in lettuce. Lettuce can be grown in a garden almost anywhere in the US, but by far the majority of commercial lettuce is grown in the Salinas Valley on California's central coast. Heat generally prompts lettuce to bolt, with most varieties growing poorly above 24 °C (75 °F); cool temperatures prompt better performance, with 16 to 18 °C (61 to 64 °F) being preferred and as low as 7 °C (45 °F) being tolerated. This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 11:28. Lettuce is an excellent source of vitamin K, vitamin A, folate, and iron. Optimum growth temperature for lettuce is 16 to 18 °C and the plant can tolerate temperatures as low as 7 °C. Thanks. Singapore, Malaysia, Japan, China, the Philippines and possibly certain parts of India would grow lettuce. In addition to its usual purpose as an edible leafy vegetable, lettuce has had a number of uses in ancient (and even some more modern) folk medicine and religious symbolism.  The species was first described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus in the second volume of his Species Plantarum. The International Space Station (ISS) has been experimenting with growing its own lettuce and good news for astronauts, a study found the space-grown variety to be just as nutritious as Earth-grown. They need moist soil to grow correctly. QUESTION: What lettuce grows well in summer? The religious ties of lettuce continue into the present day among the Yazidi people of northern Iraq, who have a religious prohibition against eating the plant. The Romans likewise claimed that it increased sexual potency. The harvested lettuce is best stored at 0 °C and a humidity of 96%. Three types – leaf, head and cos or romaine – are the most common.  One variety, the celtuce (asparagus lettuce) (t: 萵苣; s: 莴苣; woju), is grown for its stems, which are eaten either raw or cooked.  Seeds keep best when stored in cool conditions, and, unless stored cryogenically, remain viable the longest when stored at −20 °C (−4 °F); they are relatively short lived in storage. , In the United States in 2013, California (71%) and Arizona (29%) produced nearly all of the country's fresh head and leaf lettuce, with head lettuce yielding $9400 of value per acre and leaf lettuce $8000 per acre.. Let’s have a look at how you can grow lettuce in a greenhouse! Where (in the World!) Lettuce is easily cultivated and is grown all year round. In addition, since the temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide, lighting, and other conditions can be perfectly controlled by ICT, a stable yield of high-quality, low-potassium lettuce can be harvested throughout the year. Growing lettuce in a clean room where there is very little dust and most germs have been eliminated means that lettuce is produced that can be eaten without washing. The salad crops were free of disease and even more nutritious than ones grown on Earth. , Species of annual plant of the daisy family, most often grown as a leaf vegetable, "Lettuce (with chicory) production in 2017; Countries/Regions/Production Quantity from pick lists", "The Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project", "New Directions in Salad Crops: New Forms, New Tools, and Old Philosophy", "Developing Multi-Species Insect Resistance in Romaine Lettuce", "As Bagged Salad Kits Boom, Americans Eat More Greens", "Chapter IV. LETTUCE has been successfully grown in space — bringing the colonisation of Mars a step closer say scientists. These lettuces tend to be larger, bolt-resistant and well-flavored.  Viruses, including hepatitis A, calicivirus and a Norwalk-like strain, have been found in lettuce. Your Fruits and Vegetables Come from: An Interactive Finder. Data …  The leaves are colorful, mainly in the green and red color spectrums, with some variegated varieties. Plants generally have a height and spread of 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 in). Most lettuce varieties are eaten fresh and are commonly served as the base of green salads.  This word has become the genus name, while sativa (meaning "sown" or "cultivated") was added to create the species name. It is most often grown as a leaf vegetable, but sometimes for its stem and seeds. Lettuce Farming Guide: Introduction to Lettuce:- Lettuce is one of the popular cool season leafy salad crops grown throughout the world due to its food value in diet.Among all, garden lettuce is being grown on commercial scale. Space-Grown Lettuce Is Safe and Astronaut-Approved NASA’s vegetable production system, known as Veggie, may help pave the way for more sophisticated systems that could supplement astronauts’ diets during long trips to space. -Kelly W. ANSWER: By planting a few seeds every two weeks or so, gardeners in many parts of the world can grow lettuce year round.Most varieties of salad greens really thrive in the cool and mild times of year, when temperatures are 60 degrees Fahrenheit or lower. Before World War I most lettuce grown in the U.S. was For example, the larvae of the ghost moth is a common pest of lettuce plants.  The ovaries form compressed, obovate (teardrop-shaped) dry fruits that do not open at maturity, measuring 3 to 4 mm long. Lactuca sativa is a member of the Lactuca (lettuce) genus and the Asteraceae (sunflower or aster) family. Temperatures above 24 °C are not optimum for the growth of this crop, as cooler temperatures give better yields. Some varieties, especially those found in the United States and Western Europe, have long, narrow taproots and a small set of secondary roots. Books published in the mid-18th and early 19th centuries describe several varieties found in gardens today. Conventionally grown lettuce, similarly packaged, is often sold below $4 per pound. , Lettuce's native range spreads from the Mediterranean to Siberia, although it has been transported to almost all areas of the world. Aster yellows are a disease-causing bacteria carried by leafhoppers, which causes deformed leaves. Lettuce is also used in cooked dishes in different parts of the world. Lettuce spaced farther apart receives more sunlight, which improves color and nutrient quantities in the leaves. Circa 50 AD, Roman agriculturalist Columella described several lettuce varieties – some of which may have been ancestors of today's lettuces. Lactuca virosa is biennial, similar to prickly lettuce Lactuca serriola but taller – it can grow to 200 cm (80 inches or almost 7 feet). China is the world leader in lettuce production, producing half of the world's lettuce.Stem lettuce is grown in the country and the stems are prepared as a cooked vegetable. Spacing of about 6 to 18 inches between romaine lettuce plants to ensure they get enough nutrients and space to grow. The study noted that in some trials, the space-grown plants tended to be richer in elements like potassium, sodium, phosphorus, sulphur, and zinc, as well as in some molecules with proven antiviral, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activity. Tracing the history of many varieties is complicated by the practice of many companies, particularly in the US, of changing a variety's name from year to year. In addition to its main use as a leafy green, it has also gathered religious and medicinal significance over centuries of human consumption. China alone produced about 13.5 million tons. IKEA, the world's biggest furniture retailer, is preparing to serve lettuce grown in high-tech containers outside its stores as part of efforts to improve its environmental profile. But if you live in the area where it’s native, this is a fantastic native wild vegetable that you can easily grow on your wild homestead.. For example, ancient Egyptians thought lettuce to be a symbol of sexual prowess and a promoter of love and childbearing in women. In 2017, world production of lettuce (report combined with chicory) was 27 million tonnes, with China alone producing 15.2 million tonnes or 56% of the world total (see table). Outbreaks Associated with Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce. Space lettuce grown on the International Space Station has been proven safe to consume, which could change the way astronauts eat during long-term spaceflight in the future. , Lettuce appears in many medieval writings, especially as a medicinal herb. Space-Grown Lettuce Is Safe and Astronaut-Approved NASA’s vegetable production system, known as Veggie, may help pave the way for more sophisticated systems that could supplement astronauts’ diets during long trips to space. By 50 AD, many types were described, and lettuce appeared often in medieval writings, including several herbals. Before World War I most lettuce grown in the U.S. was either leaf or butter lettuce . Leaf – Also known as looseleaf, cutting or bunching lettuce. Stem lettuce, widely consumed in China, is eaten either raw or cooked, the latter primarily in soups and stir-frys.  L. sativa also has many identified taxonomic groups, subspecies and varieties, which delineate the various cultivar groups of domesticated lettuce. Oilseed – This type is grown for its seeds, which are pressed to extract an oil mainly used for cooking.  Hydroponic growing methods can reduce this water consumption by nearly two orders of magnitude. Lettuce is the only member of the genus Lactuca to be grown commercially.  The current word lettuce, originally from Middle English, came from the Old French letues or laitues, which derived from the Roman name. In the last decade, the market for this variety has also grown explosively in Italy. Work in these areas continues through the present day. Earlier, Europe and North America were the leading producers of lettuce; however, since the late 20th century, lettuce’s production and consumption had spread throughout the world. LETTUCE has been successfully grown in space — bringing the colonisation of Mars a step closer say scientists. Starting in the 1990s, such programs began to include more distantly related species such as L. California (71%) and Arizona (29%) account for the entire lettuce production in the US. By the end of the century, other types began to regain popularity and eventually made up over 30 percent of production. " Its use in religious ceremonies resulted in the creation of many images in tombs and wall paintings. It is also stouter, the stem and leaves are more purple flushed, [disputed – discuss] the leaves are less divided, but more spreading. Summary. Documentation from the late 19th century shows between 65 and 140 distinct varieties of lettuce, depending on the amount of variation allowed between types – a distinct difference from the 1,100 named lettuce varieties on the market at the time. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is an annual plant of the daisy family, Asteraceae. protect from slugs and snails.  Lettuce was considered a sacred plant of the reproduction god Min, and it was carried during his festivals and placed near his images. Miner’s lettuce is a perennial vegetable native to much of the western United States and Canada. In 1586, Joachim Camerarius provided descriptions of the three basic modern lettuces – head lettuce, loose-leaf lettuce, and romaine (or cos) lettuce. Lettuce is grown on all continents, but the greatest consumers and producers are the USA (91 000 hectares, of which 60 000 ha are in California) and Europe (total EEC area 80 000 ha). Spacing of about 6 to 18 inches between romaine lettuce plants to ensure they get enough nutrients and space to grow. Similarly, ancient Romans also claimed that lettuce consumption increases sexual potency.  Although most lettuce grown today is used as a vegetable, a minor amount is used in the production of tobacco-free cigarettes; however, domestic lettuce's wild relatives produce a leaf that visually more closely resembles tobacco. They said the space-grown lettuce was similar in composition to the Earth-based controls. Incidence, Growth, and Survival of Pathogens in Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce", "Bashiqa Journal: A Sect Shuns Lettuce and Gives the Devil His Due", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lettuce&oldid=997415699, Articles with dead external links from October 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Lettuce is most often grown as a leaf vegetable, but sometimes for its stem and seeds as well. One variety, the celtuce (asparagus lettuce) (t: 萵苣; s: 莴苣; woju), is grown for its stems, which are eaten either raw or cooked. The plant was thought to help the god "perform the sexual act untiringly. The European settlers introduced the crops to other parts of the world. In 1917, 3,350 carloads of butter lettuce were shipped to terminal markets across the U.S., compared to only 2,078 carloads of iceberg lettuce. “Greenhouse manufacturers originally developed this type of greenhouse for fruit crops, but this approach is increasingly is being chosen for hydroponic production of lettuce too. Lettuce is the most popular of the salad crops and is of great commercial importance; first-time Lettuce cultivated in ancient Egypt. The vegetable has also been linked to outbreaks of parasitic infestations, including Giardia lamblia.. Spain and then the US are the two largest exporters of lettuce in the world. Lettuce grows best in full sun in loose, nitrogen-rich soils with a pH of between 6.0 and 6.8. , Food-borne pathogens that can survive on lettuce include Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis, which multiplies in storage.  Like other members of the tribe Cichorieae, lettuce inflorescences (also known as flower heads or capitula) are composed of multiple florets, each with a modified calyx called a pappus (which becomes the feathery "parachute" of the fruit), a corolla of five petals fused into a ligule or strap, and the reproductive parts. Why it is an advantage growing lettuce in a pot. "Lettuce" is synonymous with "salad" for people all over the world.  Lettuces meant for the cutting of individual leaves are generally planted straight into the garden in thick rows. Although romaine lettuce is a heat resistant variety, lettuce, in general, are cold-weather plants and will not do well in hot weather.  Synonyms for L. sativa include Lactuca scariola var. Currently, the crisphead variety is more dominant in northern and western Europe. It is most often grown as a leaf vegetable, but sometimes for its stem and seeds.  There are seven main cultivar groups of lettuce, each including many varieties: The butterhead and crisphead types are sometimes known together as "cabbage" lettuce, because their heads are shorter, flatter, and more cabbage-like than romaine lettuces. It ships well, but is low in flavor and nutritional content, being composed of even more water than other lettuce types. Lettuce, annual leaf vegetable of the aster family. Longer taproots and more extensive secondary systems are found in varieties from Asia. Lettuce is most often used for salads, although it is also seen in other kinds of food, such as soups, sandwiches and wraps; it can also be grilled. There are several types or cultivars of lettuce.  Folk medicine has also claimed it as a treatment for pain, rheumatism, tension and nervousness, coughs and insanity; scientific evidence of these benefits in humans has not been found. It's by far the world's most popular salad plant and has been cultivated for more than 2,000 years. Trying to grow lettuce again this year and want to mimic where it grows best - and wild. Romaine lettuce is often used for Caesar salads. It has become naturalized in Europe because of its use as a vegetable. , The Romans referred to lettuce as lactuca (lac meaning dairy in Latin), an allusion to the white substance, now called latex, exuded by cut stems.  Lettuce contains several defensive compounds, including sesquiterpene lactones, and other natural phenolics such as flavonol and glycosides, which help to protect it against pests. Eight years later, almost four times as much iceberg as butter lettuce was shipped .  Crowding lettuce tends to attract pests and diseases. 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