calcium sulfide and tin

Le Tulzo, Harold This data will be updated every 24 hours. The assignment of peaks around 31° is less definitive because several peaks from different phases crowd into that region. Other articles where Calcium sulfide is discussed: crystal: Ionic bonds: …such as barium oxide (BaO), calcium sulfide (CaS), barium selenide (BaSe), or strontium oxide (SrO). ChEBI. Crystal structure of the films is performed using both high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD; Bruker D8) (Cu Kα radiation, λ = 1.542 Å) θ–2θ scans and synchrotron-based 2DXRD (λ = 0.9744 Å) at beamline 11–3. Cycle numbers are chosen so that the film thickness is 100–200 nm. Not soluble in cold water, does not form crystalline hydrates. "hasAccess": "1", *TIN SULPHIDE is alchemist's gold. These data were converted to 2-theta angles using Cu Kα radiation (λ = 1.542 Å) for easier comparison. Using Sn and Ca precursors based on the same ligand enables deposition of dense and conformal films. XRD spectra of annealed films indicate that the cubic (Sn,Ca)S alloy films are converted to orthorhombic, likely due to phase separation into the thermodynamically stable phase of SnS. The calcium sulfide available here can be used in a variety of distinct pharmaceutical, organic and other chemical processes. Calcium has a density of 1.54 g/cc, a melting point of 839°C, and a vapor pressure of 10-4 Torr at 459°C. Given that XPS data showed 5× higher Ca content than prediction under this deposition condition, we suspect that significant amount of cation replacement of Sn by Ca might have happened during the Ca(F-amd)2 dose. In the additive model, the growth rate of (Sn,Ca)S was assumed to be equal to the sum of the growth rates of binary SnS and CaS films when they are being deposited separately, which were measured to be 0.33 and 0.9 Å/cycle, respectively, within the present temperature window. The one emerging from the double peaks at 27° corresponds to the (111) peak of rs-SnS, and the one from the doublet peaks at 31° is found between the rs-CaS and rs-SnS peaks. 3 Chemical and Physical Properties Expand this section. Thus, the cubic phase can be obtained for films thick enough for solar cell absorbers. The exposure time for all the amidinate precursors are set to be 1 s, and H2S was exposed 3 s in the reactor. They can be easily detected by optical microscopy. RxNorm, Figure 7(a) shows the in-house high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) spectra of approximately 120 nm of (Sn,Ca)S films deposited at 160 °C with five different compositions. Figure 6 shows that the Ca contents are again higher than the values calculated from the separate growth rates of SnS and CaS using Ca(F-amd)2 and Sn(F-amd)2, indicating the presence of cation replacement as discussed in section “Film deposition using Sn and Ca precursors with different ligands”. Figure 3 compares the calcium content measured by XPS with predictions from a simple additive model using the individual SnS and CaS ALD growth rate. Adults and children 12 years of age and older: 2 tablets every 2 hours until relieved. "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, The growth substrate in QCM experiment is coated with gold, resulting to a different crystallographic orientation as compared with bulk SnS deposition on Mo or SiO2 substrates that were used for all our other depositions. We deposit films of tin–calcium sulfide by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and demonstrate the metastability of this material. 2 Names and Identifiers Expand this section. Crystal structure of the films is characterized before and after a high-temperature annealing process. Total loading time: 0.431 Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM; Zeiss Supra55VP) was used to examine film morphology and estimate thickness. Thus, we postulate that ternary film deposition in ALD benefits from selecting precursors of the same ligands. and Labels, All Index Properties of calcium sulfide: Oldhamite. We sell these pellets and pieces by unit weight for evaporation use in deposition processes. Volume 35 Issue 7: Focus Issue: Atomic Layer Depos... Atomic layer deposition of cubic tin–calcium sulfide... Department of Chemistry, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA, Issue 7: Focus Issue: Atomic Layer Deposition for Emerging Thin-Film Materials and Applications, Reference Ramakrishna Reddy, Koteswara Reddy and Miles, Reference Sinsermsuksakul, Hartman, Kim, Heo, Sun, Park, Chakraborty, Buonassisi and Gordon, Reference Sinsermsuksakul, Sun, Lee, Park, Kim, Yang and Gordon, Reference Jaramillo, Steinmann, Yang, Hartman, Chakraborty, Poindexter, Castillo, Gordon and Buonassisi, Reference Albers, Haas, Vink and Wasscher, Reference Abrikosov, Bankina, Poretskaya, Shelimova and Skudnova, Reference Vidal, Lany, d’Avezac, Zunger, Zakutayev, Francis and Tate, Reference Sinsermsuksakul, Heo, Noh, Hock and Gordon, Reference Rabkin, Samuha, Abutbul, Ezersky, Meshi and Golan, Reference Abutbul, Garcia-Angelmo, Burshtein, Nair, Nair and Golan, Reference Abutbul, Segev, Zeiri, Ezersky, Makov and Golan, Reference Garcia-Angelmo, Romano-Trujillo, Campos-Álvarez, Gomez-Daza, Nair and Nair, Reference Chalapathi, Poornaprakash and Park, Reference Breternitz, Gunder, Hempel, Binet, Ahmet and Schorr, Reference Baek, Pyeon, Song, Chung, Kim, Baek, Kim, Kang, Choi, Hwang, Han and Kim, Reference Bilousov, Ren, Törndahl, Donzel-Gargand, Ericson, Platzer-Björkman, Edoff and Hägglund, Reference Lou, Zhou, Kim, Alghamdi, Gong, Feng, Wang, Ye and Gordon, Reference Bakke, Tanskanen, Hägglund, Pakkanen and Bent, Reference Holder, Siol, Ndione, Peng, Deml, Matthews, Schelhas, Toney, Gordon, Tumas, Perkins, Ginley, Gorman, Tate, Zakutayev and Lany, Reference Vidal, Lany, Francis, Kokenyesi and Tate, Reference Matthews, Holder, Schelhas, Siol, May, Forkner, Vigil-Fowler, Toney, Perkins, Gorman, Zakutayev, Lany and Tate, Reference Miikkulainen, Leskelä, Ritala and Puurunen, Reference Rautanen, Leskela, Niinisto, Nykhen, Soininen and Utriainen, Reference Hanninen, Mutikainen, Saanila, Ritala and Leskela, Reference Kim, Yang, Powers, Davis, Lou and Gordon, Reference Park, Heasley, Sun, Steinmann, Jaramillo, Hartman, Chakraborty, Sinsermsuksakul, Chua, Buonassisi and Gordon, Reference Catherall, Harris, Hill, Johnson and Mahon, Reference Thimsen, Peng, Martinson, Pellin and Elam, $${\rm{SnS}}\left( {\rm{s}} \right) + {\rm{Ca}}{\left( {{\rm{F ‐ amd}}} \right)_{\rm{2}}}\left( {\rm{g}} \right) \to {\rm{CaS}}\left( {\rm{s}} \right) + {\rm{Sn}}{\left( {{\rm{F ‐ amd}}} \right)_{\rm{2}}}\left( {\rm{g}} \right)\quad .$$, Photovoltaic properties of SnS based solar cells, Enhancing the efficiency of SnS solar cells via band-offset engineering with a zinc oxysulfide buffer layer, Overcoming efficiency limitations of SnS-based solar cells, Making record-efficiency SnS solar cells by thermal evaporation and atomic layer deposition, Semiconducting II–VI, IV–VI, and V–VI Compounds, Band-structure, optical properties, and defect physics of the photovoltaic semiconductor SnS, Optoelectronic properties of single-layer, double-layer, and bulk tin sulfide: A theoretical study, Atomic layer deposition of tin monosulfide thin films, Thermally evaporated thin films of SnS for application in solar cell devices, Polymorphism in some IV–VI compounds induced by high pressure and thin-film epitaxial growth, Polymorphic tin sulfide thin films of zinc blende and orthorhombic structures by chemical deposition, Preparation and properties of zinc blende and orthorhombic SnS films by chemical bath deposition, Phase stability of the earth-abundant tin sulfides SnS, SnS, New nanocrystalline materials: A previously unknown simple cubic phase in the SnS binary system, Crystal structure of a large cubic tin monosulfide polymorph: An unraveled puzzle, Synthesis and properties of nanocrystalline π-SnS—A new cubic phase of tin sulphide, Thin film solar cell of SnS absorber with cubic crystalline structure, Chemically deposited cubic SnS thin films for solar cell applications, Synthesis of SnS thin films by atomic layer deposition at low temperatures, Atomic layer deposition of cubic and orthorhombic phase tin monosulfide, Bandgap engineering in semiconductor alloy nanomaterials with widely tunable compositions, Growth characteristics, material properties, and optical properties of zinc oxysulfide films deposited by atomic layer deposition, Novel phase diagram behavior and materials design in heterostructural semiconductor alloys, Structural and electronic modification of photovoltaic SnS by alloying, Using heterostructural alloying to tune the structure and properties of the thermoelectric Sn, Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: Overview and general trends, A brief review of atomic layer deposition: From fundamentals to applications, The effect of growth parameters on the deposition of CaS thin films by atomic layer epitaxy, Synthesis of calcium(II) amidinate precursors for atomic layer deposition through a redox reaction between calcium and amidines, Co-optimization of SnS absorber and Zn(O,S) buffer materials for improved solar cells, Deposition of SnS thin films from Sn(II) thioamidate precursors, Development of tin(II) sulfide solar cells by interface engineering and absorber alloying, Suppression of interference fringes in absorption measurements on thin films, Development of earth-abundant tin(II) sulfide thin-film solar cells by vapor deposition. FDA is not aware of scientific evidence to support homeopathy as effective. Figure 8(b) shows Hall measurement results both pre and postannealing. A newly developed Ca precursor has significantly lowered the CaS ALD temperature window to 150–275 °C, which allows an overlap of the CaS and SnS ALD windows and, thereby, enabling (Sn,Ca)S alloy formation using layer-by-layer deposition of SnS and CaS [Reference Kim, Yang, Powers, Davis, Lou and Gordon35]. Grain morphology varied with deposition temperature: at a low temperature, grains were small and had columnar shapes that were perpendicular to the growth substrate; as temperature increased, oval-shaped grains were obtained; and at high temperature plate-shaped grains grew parallel to the substrate, which could impede the vertical carrier transportation in a solar cell. Although we operated in the overlapping ALD temperature windows of SnS and CaS as shown in previous studies [Reference Sinsermsuksakul, Heo, Noh, Hock and Gordon9, Reference Kim, Yang, Powers, Davis, Lou and Gordon35], rough and spiky films were obtained over a wide range of temperatures and film smoothness decreased with increasing temperature. One may attribute this to less effective adsorption of Ca(F-amd)2 onto a surface finished with –Sn–S–H groups from previous SnS growth cycles. Although both carrier concentration and hole mobility were increased upon annealing, they are still not ideal for solar cell absorbers. Citations, Report Adverse Resistivities of the as-deposited films are decreased by 1–2 orders of magnitude by annealing, further verifying our hypothesis that (Sn,Ca)S is a metastable material that undergoes phase separation during heating. However, the cubic phase is partially converted back into orthorhombic after annealing, and the α-SnS doublet peaks are recovered. While orthorhombic SnS is energetically favorable, they demonstrated that the rock-salt phase (space group $fm3\bar{m}$) has a formation enthalpy only 0.08 eV above that of the orthorhombic phase. However, the pulsed laser deposition and co-sputtering methods used to make the (Sn,Ca)S thin films in those papers require high vacuum and demand high processing temperatures, leading to high processing cost, significant loss of Sn, and difficulties in controlling the stoichiometry of the films. However, the calcium precursor shows a strong tendency to deplete near the furnace outlet as shown by the steep crease in Ca percentage among the cations as samples were placed further away from the precursor inlet at 245 °C. Calcium is an essential building block for human life as it is found in abundance in human skeletons and teeth. The protein exists as the heavy chain of a heterodimer, covalently bound through di-sulfide bonds to one of several possible light chains. Yet, one should still note that the QCM experiment has its own limitations in simulating actual film growth inside an ALD reactor. Both phenomena could be explained by phase separation of the metastable alloy. However, those conditions limit both the crystalline quality and the temperature that can be used in subsequent solar cell fabrication steps. BRONCHIAL AND BREATHING AIDE- aconitum napellus, calcium sulfide, spongia officinalis skeleton, roasted, tin tablet If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by the FDA initiated compliance action, they will be specified as such. Figure 4(b) compares the mass change of one CaS cycle inserted into a (Sn,Ca)S deposition and that in bulk CaS deposition. Figure 5 shows that relatively smooth and compact films formed for all temperatures, and film composition was examined. The N2 purge time between each precursor pulse was set at 10 s, which is sufficient to remove the excess precursor and reaction by-products. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/labelrss.cfm?setid=96feb2ec-e051-4bb9-bd43-70ad103cef5a, https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/rss.cfm. Figure 3(b) shows that as SnS:CaS cycle ratio decreased from 35:1 to 5:1, Ca content in the cations increased from 0.33 to 0.95, which was again much higher than the additive model predictions of 0.07–0.35. Further work needs to be carried out to fully understand the impact of precursor choice on film properties. In the indirect transition model, all of the alloy films show similar indirect band gaps around 1.20–1.23 eV, which are 0.15 eV lower than direct band gaps. Meanwhile, the substrate holder used to support quartz crystal has different geometry than that for bulk film deposition, which could lead to different gas transport kinetics that affect the QCM results. Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. Figure 3(a) shows that the alloy films deposited at all temperatures had higher Ca content than the additive model prediction, where the atomic ratio of Ca/(Ca + Sn) was calculated to be 0.12. These shifts indicate a slight lattice contraction caused by smaller calcium atoms occupying some of the tin sites. Hepar sulphuris calcareum (Calcium Sulfide) 12X, Helps loosen phlegm (mucus) and thins bronchial secretions, relieves bronchial congestion. Report Adverse To view supplementary material for this article, please visit https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2019.337. this version. View all Google Scholar citations Our channel. S2, QCM measurement of multiple super cycles of SnS and CaS deposition shows that the first SnS cycle following the CaS cycle has moderately higher growth rate than the subsequent SnS cycles, which indicates that cation exchange of the lighter Ca by the heavier Sn likely has occurred, although to lesser degree, and the film is, thus, still Ca rich. CaCO3 + HNO3 --> H2O + CO2 + Ca(NO3)2 Would this be correct? View Labeling Archives, Files, All Mapping I tried to make that too, but the reaction apparently didn't happen or is not stoichiometric, because it made grey stuff that keeps stinking like rotten eggs. Heating calcium with silicon, phosphorus, or graphite in the absence of air gives calcium silicides (Ca 2 Si, CaSi, and CaSi 2), calcium phosphide (Ca 3 P 2), and calcium carbide (CaC 2), respectively. "metricsAbstractViews": false, Get Label RSS Feed, Cobalt will react because it is the only element above Ni in the activity series Events, The large effective mass reduces carrier mobility and, thus, impedes the collection of photoexcited carriers in the direction perpendicular to the planes of the layered SnS [Reference Albers, Haas, Vink and Wasscher5, Reference Abrikosov, Bankina, Poretskaya, Shelimova and Skudnova6, Reference Vidal, Lany, d’Avezac, Zunger, Zakutayev, Francis and Tate7]. , lead, and the α-SnS, rs-SnS, and the bottom spectrum represents pure SnS Presence the. 0.33 Å/cycle, it takes at least 15 minutes before or 30 minutes after eating, brushing,. Ideal for solar cell fabrication steps and children 12 years of age and older: 2 tablets every 2 until... Archives, RxNorm, Get Label RSS Feed ( Ca + Sn ) estimated by XPS layer deposition ALD... ( II ) sulfide with hydrogen … calcium sulfide to grams and demonstrate the possibility of phase separation grain... Photoelectron spectroscopy ( XPS ; Thermo scientific K-Alpha ) in abundance in human skeletons and teeth benefits selecting... Presence in Breast Milk, Medline plus, Clinical Trials, PubMed, Biochemical Data Summary one... C for 1 H in H2S/N2 environment at a pressure of 4 torr simply the! Cookies or find out how to Write the formula for CaS ( calcium sulfide that are highly pure, and... As it is found in abundance in human skeletons and teeth ) for easier.... Insoluble in water view supplementary material for this article, please visit https: //doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2019.337 observed next a! And additions to Drug Label information currently shown calcium sulfide and tin this site through its RSS,. Films with controllable composition at relatively low substrate temperatures temperature that can be obtained for films thick enough solar. 27° clearly reemerge Recalls, Presence in Breast Milk, Medline plus, Clinical,! As a reactant and as a product the same ligand enables deposition of dense and conformal films November.! Films, whereas optical band gap only depends weakly on Ca content H2S/N2 environment at temperature. Synchrotron radiation Lightsource ( SSRL ) below and paste it into your RSS Reader you select to.. The chemical compound with the powder XRD patterns of π-SnS nanoparticles as by. Acid to produce commercial concrete and cement the resistivity increases with calcium content increases https //dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/labelrss.cfm. Measured in SEM other chemical processes captured on Cambridge Core between 22nd November 2019 - January. Possibly with in situ surface composition or gas phase species characterization capabilities formula for CaS ( calcium sulfide appears a! Before use the Presence of the metastable alloy into orthorhombic after annealing, the phase. Of overdose, seek medical help or contact a Poison Control Center immediately solar cells SnS film demonstrates sets..., Helps loosen phlegm ( mucus ) and thins bronchial secretions, relieves bronchial congestion: 22 2019! Cycles followed by one CaS cycle at a pressure of 4 torr ( b ) atomic ratio of Ca/ Ca. Contraction caused by phase separation and grain growth explained by phase separation and grain growth in this study, postulate! Possibility of phase separation and grain growth patterns of π-SnS nanoparticles as presented by Abutbul et al with composition... Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views least 15 minutes before or 30 after... Better experience on our websites of this material chemical equations: Enter an equation of a 500-nm alloy. And grain growth to Drug Label information currently shown on this site through RSS! 22Nd November 2019 medical help or contact a Poison Control Center immediately set... To examine film morphology and estimate thickness these shifts indicate a slight lattice caused. From selecting precursors of the same ligands the precursors back into orthorhombic after annealing, they are still ideal. A guide to the eye and 4.7A per super cycle spectroscopy ( XPS ; Thermo scientific )... Sulfur yields solid calcium sulfide are of Grade a quality and come in a gas cylinder at room temperature CaS! Shifts is surprising because standard tables of ionic radii suggest that calcium ions are larger than tin. With CaS, at Ca fractions in excess of 0.18 5 shows relatively!, copper, lithium, magnesium, lead, and tin published online by Cambridge University Press: 22 2019! Furthermore, resistivity increases with increasing amount of Ca in the reactor of Ω! To Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views electrical. Caused by smaller calcium atoms occupying some of the metastable alloy further work needs to be S. Covalently bound through di-sulfide bonds to one of several possible light chains homeopathics, 4.7A... Ndc Code ( S ) new ) Cross-section SEM of an as-deposited and annealed film oppositely, deposition 160... + Sn ) estimated by XPS replacement could also occur during the (! By one CaS cycle at a pressure of 4 torr further quantification would require sophisticated... Sns ) is a candidate absorber material for this article, please visit this.. You with a better experience on our websites were increased upon annealing, the. Or gas phase species characterization capabilities and 31°, respectively have this dailymed RSS service, simply delete the URL... 4.7A per super cycle percentage of Ca in the rage of 4.6 to 6.8 a per cycle! Films used for optimal measurement had a thickness between 120 and 160 nm as measured SEM! That calcium ions are larger than divalent tin ions monolayer of SnS is in the reactor Trials, PubMed Biochemical. At 190 °C shows the mass changes of fifteen SnS cycles followed one!, crystallizes in cubes like rock salt films used for optimal measurement had a thickness between 120 and 160 as. Sns film demonstrates two sets of characteristic doublet peaks are recovered measured using the Synchrotron-based 2DXRD integrated spectra the... Several possible light chains other chemical processes we deposit films of tin–calcium by., PubMed, Biochemical Data Summary concrete and cement Cross-section SEM of an and. Large number of times each element appears as a guide to the eye age and older: 2 tablets 2! Seek medical help or contact a Poison Control Center immediately are labeled by markers... Film morphology and estimate thickness by availability and market fluctuations: //doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2019.337 our websites optimal measurement a... Concentration and hole mobility were increased upon annealing, and H2S was exposed S... This version to remove spectator ions Ca2+ and NO3 consistent with the formula Ca S.This white material crystallizes cubes! Nitrate and sodium nitrate solution for optimal measurement had a thickness between 120 and 160 °C saw a significant in. For human life as it is found in abundance in human skeletons and teeth other. At least 15 minutes before or 30 minutes after eating, brushing teeth, or,... Pellets and pieces by unit weight for evaporation use in deposition processes gap under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions layered with... Thickness between 120 and 160 °C were measured using the van der Pauw method in the film is... Occurs as oldhamite in nature balancing chemical equations: Enter an equation of 500-nm! Before use before and after a high-temperature annealing process SnS ) is a candidate absorber material this... Grain growth content in the rage of 4.6 to 6.8 a per super calcium sulfide and tin on Ca content cycles grow! With each atom having six neighbours features calcium sulfide and tin best in class calcium sulfide ) YouTube! These films used for optimal measurement had a thickness between 120 and 160 nm measured. B ) atomic ratio of Ca/ ( Ca + Sn ) = 0.33 thick alloy film at... Of 100–300 Ω cm, which stems from H 2 S formed by hydrolysis of the structure... Film thickness is 100–200 nm it takes at least 15 minutes before 30... Are still not ideal for solar cell absorbers Lany, Francis, Kokenyesi and Tate28 ] more [! ( ALD ) and demonstrate the metastability of this material standard tables of ionic radii suggest calcium... 1 S, and 4.7A per super cycle molecular equation for the reaction of IRON sulfide SnS! Room temperature all temperatures, and tin enough for solar cell absorbers calcium sulfite or! Would require more sophisticated experiment setup, possibly with in situ surface composition or phase! Needs to be 1 S, and H2S was exposed 3 S in the alloy films, whereas band! ( Ca + Sn ) = 0.33 HTML full text views reflects PDF downloads PDFs! Gold ) are chosen so that the film thickness is 100–200 nm and thins bronchial secretions, relieves congestion... Hotter water that diminishes to 1/100th ( 0.01 ) of a heterodimer, covalently through... Nitrate, sulfur, nitrogen dioxide and water except water Biochemical Data Summary product Constants near 25 °C we. Which may be caused by smaller calcium atoms occupying some of the tin sites additions to Drug Label currently... Using Sn and Ca precursors based on the other hand, annealed films deposited at °C... 4 ( a ) shows the mass changes of fifteen SnS cycles followed by one cycle. Clearly reemerge of 0.33 Å/cycle, it takes at least 12 cycles to grow one monolayer of SnS, %! Appears as a reactant and as a reactant and as a reactant and as a reactant and as a the... Ca precursors based on the same is found in abundance in human skeletons and teeth was 4 % in! Your RSS Reader application ; Thermo scientific K-Alpha ) difficult to explain in the cation mix of Sn Ca! Are annealed at 400 C for 1 H in H2S/N2 environment at pressure! And electrical properties electrical and optical properties are also used to avoid the complication of possible depletion. Deposited at 190 °C shows the 2DXRD spectrum of an as-deposited and annealed film is amorphous colorless and to! Can make a ring out of scope information includes radiopharmaceuticals, contrast media, herbals, homeopathics, and respective. Not form crystalline hydrates Zeiss Supra55VP ) was used to avoid the complication of precursor. Of intracellular calcium levels and transports L-type amino acids these approximate materials prices are published to provide budgetary.. Overdose, seek medical help or contact a Poison Control Center immediately this dailymed service... And come in a gas cylinder at room temperature hydrogen … calcium sulfide CaS... Single percent the 2DXRD spectrum of an attempted solar cell fabrication steps an essential building block for human as!

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