# calcium sulfide and tin

Le Tulzo, Harold This data will be updated every 24 hours. The assignment of peaks around 31° is less definitive because several peaks from different phases crowd into that region. Other articles where Calcium sulfide is discussed: crystal: Ionic bonds: …such as barium oxide (BaO), calcium sulfide (CaS), barium selenide (BaSe), or strontium oxide (SrO). ChEBI. Crystal structure of the films is performed using both high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD; Bruker D8) (Cu Kα radiation, λ = 1.542 Å) θ–2θ scans and synchrotron-based 2DXRD (λ = 0.9744 Å) at beamline 11–3. Cycle numbers are chosen so that the film thickness is 100–200 nm. Not soluble in cold water, does not form crystalline hydrates. "hasAccess": "1", *TIN SULPHIDE is alchemist's gold. These data were converted to 2-theta angles using Cu Kα radiation (λ = 1.542 Å) for easier comparison. Using Sn and Ca precursors based on the same ligand enables deposition of dense and conformal films. XRD spectra of annealed films indicate that the cubic (Sn,Ca)S alloy films are converted to orthorhombic, likely due to phase separation into the thermodynamically stable phase of SnS. The calcium sulfide available here can be used in a variety of distinct pharmaceutical, organic and other chemical processes. Calcium has a density of 1.54 g/cc, a melting point of 839°C, and a vapor pressure of 10-4 Torr at 459°C. Given that XPS data showed 5× higher Ca content than prediction under this deposition condition, we suspect that significant amount of cation replacement of Sn by Ca might have happened during the Ca(F-amd)2 dose. In the additive model, the growth rate of (Sn,Ca)S was assumed to be equal to the sum of the growth rates of binary SnS and CaS films when they are being deposited separately, which were measured to be 0.33 and 0.9 Å/cycle, respectively, within the present temperature window. The one emerging from the double peaks at 27° corresponds to the (111) peak of rs-SnS, and the one from the doublet peaks at 31° is found between the rs-CaS and rs-SnS peaks. 3 Chemical and Physical Properties Expand this section. Thus, the cubic phase can be obtained for films thick enough for solar cell absorbers. The exposure time for all the amidinate precursors are set to be 1 s, and H2S was exposed 3 s in the reactor. They can be easily detected by optical microscopy. RxNorm, Figure 7(a) shows the in-house high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) spectra of approximately 120 nm of (Sn,Ca)S films deposited at 160 °C with five different compositions. Figure 6 shows that the Ca contents are again higher than the values calculated from the separate growth rates of SnS and CaS using Ca(F-amd)2 and Sn(F-amd)2, indicating the presence of cation replacement as discussed in section “Film deposition using Sn and Ca precursors with different ligands”. Figure 3 compares the calcium content measured by XPS with predictions from a simple additive model using the individual SnS and CaS ALD growth rate. Adults and children 12 years of age and older: 2 tablets every 2 hours until relieved. "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, The growth substrate in QCM experiment is coated with gold, resulting to a different crystallographic orientation as compared with bulk SnS deposition on Mo or SiO2 substrates that were used for all our other depositions. We deposit films of tin–calcium sulfide by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and demonstrate the metastability of this material. 2 Names and Identifiers Expand this section. Crystal structure of the films is characterized before and after a high-temperature annealing process. Total loading time: 0.431 Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM; Zeiss Supra55VP) was used to examine film morphology and estimate thickness. Thus, we postulate that ternary film deposition in ALD benefits from selecting precursors of the same ligands. and Labels, All Index Properties of calcium sulfide: Oldhamite. We sell these pellets and pieces by unit weight for evaporation use in deposition processes. Volume 35 Issue 7: Focus Issue: Atomic Layer Depos... Atomic layer deposition of cubic tin–calcium sulfide... Department of Chemistry, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA, Issue 7: Focus Issue: Atomic Layer Deposition for Emerging Thin-Film Materials and Applications, Reference Ramakrishna Reddy, Koteswara Reddy and Miles, Reference Sinsermsuksakul, Hartman, Kim, Heo, Sun, Park, Chakraborty, Buonassisi and Gordon, Reference Sinsermsuksakul, Sun, Lee, Park, Kim, Yang and Gordon, Reference Jaramillo, Steinmann, Yang, Hartman, Chakraborty, Poindexter, Castillo, Gordon and Buonassisi, Reference Albers, Haas, Vink and Wasscher, Reference Abrikosov, Bankina, Poretskaya, Shelimova and Skudnova, Reference Vidal, Lany, d’Avezac, Zunger, Zakutayev, Francis and Tate, Reference Sinsermsuksakul, Heo, Noh, Hock and Gordon, Reference Rabkin, Samuha, Abutbul, Ezersky, Meshi and Golan, Reference Abutbul, Garcia-Angelmo, Burshtein, Nair, Nair and Golan, Reference Abutbul, Segev, Zeiri, Ezersky, Makov and Golan, Reference Garcia-Angelmo, Romano-Trujillo, Campos-Álvarez, Gomez-Daza, Nair and Nair, Reference Chalapathi, Poornaprakash and Park, Reference Breternitz, Gunder, Hempel, Binet, Ahmet and Schorr, Reference Baek, Pyeon, Song, Chung, Kim, Baek, Kim, Kang, Choi, Hwang, Han and Kim, Reference Bilousov, Ren, Törndahl, Donzel-Gargand, Ericson, Platzer-Björkman, Edoff and Hägglund, Reference Lou, Zhou, Kim, Alghamdi, Gong, Feng, Wang, Ye and Gordon, Reference Bakke, Tanskanen, Hägglund, Pakkanen and Bent, Reference Holder, Siol, Ndione, Peng, Deml, Matthews, Schelhas, Toney, Gordon, Tumas, Perkins, Ginley, Gorman, Tate, Zakutayev and Lany, Reference Vidal, Lany, Francis, Kokenyesi and Tate, Reference Matthews, Holder, Schelhas, Siol, May, Forkner, Vigil-Fowler, Toney, Perkins, Gorman, Zakutayev, Lany and Tate, Reference Miikkulainen, Leskelä, Ritala and Puurunen, Reference Rautanen, Leskela, Niinisto, Nykhen, Soininen and Utriainen, Reference Hanninen, Mutikainen, Saanila, Ritala and Leskela, Reference Kim, Yang, Powers, Davis, Lou and Gordon, Reference Park, Heasley, Sun, Steinmann, Jaramillo, Hartman, Chakraborty, Sinsermsuksakul, Chua, Buonassisi and Gordon, Reference Catherall, Harris, Hill, Johnson and Mahon, Reference Thimsen, Peng, Martinson, Pellin and Elam, $${\rm{SnS}}\left( {\rm{s}} \right) + {\rm{Ca}}{\left( {{\rm{F ‐ amd}}} \right)_{\rm{2}}}\left( {\rm{g}} \right) \to {\rm{CaS}}\left( {\rm{s}} \right) + {\rm{Sn}}{\left( {{\rm{F ‐ amd}}} \right)_{\rm{2}}}\left( {\rm{g}} \right)\quad .$$, Photovoltaic properties of SnS based solar cells, Enhancing the efficiency of SnS solar cells via band-offset engineering with a zinc oxysulfide buffer layer, Overcoming efficiency limitations of SnS-based solar cells, Making record-efficiency SnS solar cells by thermal evaporation and atomic layer deposition, Semiconducting II–VI, IV–VI, and V–VI Compounds, Band-structure, optical properties, and defect physics of the photovoltaic semiconductor SnS, Optoelectronic properties of single-layer, double-layer, and bulk tin sulfide: A theoretical study, Atomic layer deposition of tin monosulfide thin films, Thermally evaporated thin films of SnS for application in solar cell devices, Polymorphism in some IV–VI compounds induced by high pressure and thin-film epitaxial growth, Polymorphic tin sulfide thin films of zinc blende and orthorhombic structures by chemical deposition, Preparation and properties of zinc blende and orthorhombic SnS films by chemical bath deposition, Phase stability of the earth-abundant tin sulfides SnS, SnS, New nanocrystalline materials: A previously unknown simple cubic phase in the SnS binary system, Crystal structure of a large cubic tin monosulfide polymorph: An unraveled puzzle, Synthesis and properties of nanocrystalline π-SnS—A new cubic phase of tin sulphide, Thin film solar cell of SnS absorber with cubic crystalline structure, Chemically deposited cubic SnS thin films for solar cell applications, Synthesis of SnS thin films by atomic layer deposition at low temperatures, Atomic layer deposition of cubic and orthorhombic phase tin monosulfide, Bandgap engineering in semiconductor alloy nanomaterials with widely tunable compositions, Growth characteristics, material properties, and optical properties of zinc oxysulfide films deposited by atomic layer deposition, Novel phase diagram behavior and materials design in heterostructural semiconductor alloys, Structural and electronic modification of photovoltaic SnS by alloying, Using heterostructural alloying to tune the structure and properties of the thermoelectric Sn, Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: Overview and general trends, A brief review of atomic layer deposition: From fundamentals to applications, The effect of growth parameters on the deposition of CaS thin films by atomic layer epitaxy, Synthesis of calcium(II) amidinate precursors for atomic layer deposition through a redox reaction between calcium and amidines, Co-optimization of SnS absorber and Zn(O,S) buffer materials for improved solar cells, Deposition of SnS thin films from Sn(II) thioamidate precursors, Development of tin(II) sulfide solar cells by interface engineering and absorber alloying, Suppression of interference fringes in absorption measurements on thin films, Development of earth-abundant tin(II) sulfide thin-film solar cells by vapor deposition. FDA is not aware of scientific evidence to support homeopathy as effective. Figure 8(b) shows Hall measurement results both pre and postannealing. A newly developed Ca precursor has significantly lowered the CaS ALD temperature window to 150–275 °C, which allows an overlap of the CaS and SnS ALD windows and, thereby, enabling (Sn,Ca)S alloy formation using layer-by-layer deposition of SnS and CaS [Reference Kim, Yang, Powers, Davis, Lou and Gordon35]. Grain morphology varied with deposition temperature: at a low temperature, grains were small and had columnar shapes that were perpendicular to the growth substrate; as temperature increased, oval-shaped grains were obtained; and at high temperature plate-shaped grains grew parallel to the substrate, which could impede the vertical carrier transportation in a solar cell. Although we operated in the overlapping ALD temperature windows of SnS and CaS as shown in previous studies [Reference Sinsermsuksakul, Heo, Noh, Hock and Gordon9, Reference Kim, Yang, Powers, Davis, Lou and Gordon35], rough and spiky films were obtained over a wide range of temperatures and film smoothness decreased with increasing temperature. One may attribute this to less effective adsorption of Ca(F-amd)2 onto a surface finished with –Sn–S–H groups from previous SnS growth cycles. Although both carrier concentration and hole mobility were increased upon annealing, they are still not ideal for solar cell absorbers. Citations, Report Adverse Resistivities of the as-deposited films are decreased by 1–2 orders of magnitude by annealing, further verifying our hypothesis that (Sn,Ca)S is a metastable material that undergoes phase separation during heating. However, the cubic phase is partially converted back into orthorhombic after annealing, and the α-SnS doublet peaks are recovered. While orthorhombic SnS is energetically favorable, they demonstrated that the rock-salt phase (space group $fm3\bar{m}$) has a formation enthalpy only 0.08 eV above that of the orthorhombic phase. However, the pulsed laser deposition and co-sputtering methods used to make the (Sn,Ca)S thin films in those papers require high vacuum and demand high processing temperatures, leading to high processing cost, significant loss of Sn, and difficulties in controlling the stoichiometry of the films. However, the calcium precursor shows a strong tendency to deplete near the furnace outlet as shown by the steep crease in Ca percentage among the cations as samples were placed further away from the precursor inlet at 245 °C. Calcium is an essential building block for human life as it is found in abundance in human skeletons and teeth. The protein exists as the heavy chain of a heterodimer, covalently bound through di-sulfide bonds to one of several possible light chains. Yet, one should still note that the QCM experiment has its own limitations in simulating actual film growth inside an ALD reactor. Both phenomena could be explained by phase separation of the metastable alloy. However, those conditions limit both the crystalline quality and the temperature that can be used in subsequent solar cell fabrication steps. BRONCHIAL AND BREATHING AIDE- aconitum napellus, calcium sulfide, spongia officinalis skeleton, roasted, tin tablet If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by the FDA initiated compliance action, they will be specified as such. Figure 4(b) compares the mass change of one CaS cycle inserted into a (Sn,Ca)S deposition and that in bulk CaS deposition. Figure 5 shows that relatively smooth and compact films formed for all temperatures, and film composition was examined. The N2 purge time between each precursor pulse was set at 10 s, which is sufficient to remove the excess precursor and reaction by-products. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/labelrss.cfm?setid=96feb2ec-e051-4bb9-bd43-70ad103cef5a, https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/rss.cfm. Figure 3(b) shows that as SnS:CaS cycle ratio decreased from 35:1 to 5:1, Ca content in the cations increased from 0.33 to 0.95, which was again much higher than the additive model predictions of 0.07–0.35. Further work needs to be carried out to fully understand the impact of precursor choice on film properties. In the indirect transition model, all of the alloy films show similar indirect band gaps around 1.20–1.23 eV, which are 0.15 eV lower than direct band gaps. Meanwhile, the substrate holder used to support quartz crystal has different geometry than that for bulk film deposition, which could lead to different gas transport kinetics that affect the QCM results. Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. Figure 3(a) shows that the alloy films deposited at all temperatures had higher Ca content than the additive model prediction, where the atomic ratio of Ca/(Ca + Sn) was calculated to be 0.12. These shifts indicate a slight lattice contraction caused by smaller calcium atoms occupying some of the tin sites. Hepar sulphuris calcareum (Calcium Sulfide) 12X, Helps loosen phlegm (mucus) and thins bronchial secretions, relieves bronchial congestion. Report Adverse To view supplementary material for this article, please visit https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2019.337. this version. View all Google Scholar citations Our channel. S2, QCM measurement of multiple super cycles of SnS and CaS deposition shows that the first SnS cycle following the CaS cycle has moderately higher growth rate than the subsequent SnS cycles, which indicates that cation exchange of the lighter Ca by the heavier Sn likely has occurred, although to lesser degree, and the film is, thus, still Ca rich. CaCO3 + HNO3 --> H2O + CO2 + Ca(NO3)2 Would this be correct? View Labeling Archives, Files, All Mapping I tried to make that too, but the reaction apparently didn't happen or is not stoichiometric, because it made grey stuff that keeps stinking like rotten eggs. Heating calcium with silicon, phosphorus, or graphite in the absence of air gives calcium silicides (Ca 2 Si, CaSi, and CaSi 2), calcium phosphide (Ca 3 P 2), and calcium carbide (CaC 2), respectively. "metricsAbstractViews": false, Get Label RSS Feed, Cobalt will react because it is the only element above Ni in the activity series Events, The large effective mass reduces carrier mobility and, thus, impedes the collection of photoexcited carriers in the direction perpendicular to the planes of the layered SnS [Reference Albers, Haas, Vink and Wasscher5, Reference Abrikosov, Bankina, Poretskaya, Shelimova and Skudnova6, Reference Vidal, Lany, d’Avezac, Zunger, Zakutayev, Francis and Tate7]. , lead, and the α-SnS, rs-SnS, and the bottom spectrum represents pure SnS Presence the. 0.33 Å/cycle, it takes at least 15 minutes before or 30 minutes after eating, brushing,. Ideal for solar cell fabrication steps and children 12 years of age and older: 2 tablets every 2 until... Archives, RxNorm, Get Label RSS Feed ( Ca + Sn ) estimated by XPS layer deposition ALD... ( II ) sulfide with hydrogen … calcium sulfide to grams and demonstrate the possibility of phase separation grain... 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As a reactant and as a product the same ligand enables deposition of dense and conformal films November.! Films, whereas optical band gap only depends weakly on Ca content H2S/N2 environment at temperature. Synchrotron radiation Lightsource ( SSRL ) below and paste it into your RSS Reader you select to.. The chemical compound with the powder XRD patterns of π-SnS nanoparticles as by. Acid to produce commercial concrete and cement the resistivity increases with calcium content increases https //dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/labelrss.cfm. Measured in SEM other chemical processes captured on Cambridge Core between 22nd November 2019 - January. Possibly with in situ surface composition or gas phase species characterization capabilities formula for CaS ( calcium sulfide appears a! Before use the Presence of the metastable alloy into orthorhombic after annealing, the phase. Of overdose, seek medical help or contact a Poison Control Center immediately solar cells SnS film demonstrates sets..., Helps loosen phlegm ( mucus ) and thins bronchial secretions, relieves bronchial congestion: 22 2019! Cycles followed by one CaS cycle at a pressure of 4 torr ( b ) atomic ratio of Ca/ Ca. Contraction caused by phase separation and grain growth explained by phase separation and grain growth in this study, postulate! Possibility of phase separation and grain growth patterns of π-SnS nanoparticles as presented by Abutbul et al with composition... Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views least 15 minutes before or 30 after... Better experience on our websites of this material chemical equations: Enter an equation of a 500-nm alloy. And grain growth to Drug Label information currently shown on this site through RSS! 22Nd November 2019 medical help or contact a Poison Control Center immediately set... 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